Bio medical Model

The biomedical model is a traditional approach to understanding and explaining health and illness. It is primarily a reductionist perspective that focuses on the physical aspects of disease and illness, often emphasizing the biological factors while largely neglecting psychological, social, and environmental influences.

Biomedical Model in Health Psychology

  • Focus: The biomedical model concentrates on the physical aspects of illness and disease.
  • Biological Emphasis: It attributes illness to biological factors, like pathogens, genetic issues, and biochemical imbalances.
  • Reductionist: Simplifies health issues by looking for specific biological causes.
  • Scientific: It’s grounded in empirical, scientific methods.
  • Disease-Centered: Concentrates on diagnosing and treating specific diseases.
  • Treatment-Oriented: Mainly relies on medical treatments, like drugs and surgeries.
  • Limitations: Criticized for overlooking psychological and social factors in health.
  • Holistic Alternatives: Other models like the biopsychosocial model consider psychological, social, and environmental factors.
  • Complementary Care: Modern healthcare combines aspects of both models, integrating holistic approaches.

Bio psycho social model

The biopsychosocial model is a holistic approach to understanding health and well-being. It suggests that health and illness are not solely determined by biological factors but are also influenced by psychological, social, and environmental factors. Here’s a general outline of the components of this model:

  1. Biological Factors: These include genetics, physiological processes, and the functioning of bodily systems. Biological factors can make individuals more or less susceptible to certain health conditions.

  2. Psychological Factors: Mental and emotional states, such as stress, anxiety, depression, and coping mechanisms, can have a significant impact on health. Psychological factors influence behaviors and can affect physical health.

  3. Social Factors: Social determinants of health encompass the individual’s social environment, including family, social support, socioeconomic status, culture, and access to healthcare. Social factors play a crucial role in determining health outcomes.

  4. Behavioral Factors: Behaviors such as diet, exercise, substance use, and adherence to medical recommendations also play a vital role in health. These behaviors can be influenced by psychological and social factors.

The biopsychosocial model suggests that a comprehensive understanding of health requires considering all these interconnected factors. It emphasizes that health and illness are not solely determined by biology but are the result of complex interactions among biological, psychological, and social components.

Ancient models/systems of health

Ancientempt systems of health and health care: (i) Indian and (ii) Chinese.

Indian System of Health and Health Care:

The Indian system of health and healthcare is known as Ayurveda, which has a long history dating back thousands of years. Ayurveda, meaning “the science of life,” is based on a holistic approach to health and emphasizes the balance between the body, mind, and spirit.

Chinese System of Health and Health Care:

The Chinese system of health and healthcare is primarily based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which has a history of over 2,000 years. TCM views health as the harmonious balance between Yin and Yang energies and the free flow of vital energy or Qi throughout the body.

Key principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine include:

Yin and Yang: TCM emphasizes the concept of Yin and Yang, which are opposing forces that need to be balanced for optimal health. Yin represents the cool, passive, and nourishing aspects, while Yang represents the warm, active, and stimulating aspects. Illness is seen as an imbalance between Yin and Yang energies. Qi: Qi is the vital energy that flows through the body’s meridians or energy pathways. The unimpeded flow of Qi is essential for good health, and disruptions in its flow can lead to illness. TCM treatments aim to regulate and enhance the flow of Qi. Acupuncture: Acupuncture is a prominent therapy in TCM. It involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate and balance the flow of Qi, promoting health and treating various conditions. Herbal Medicine: Chinese herbal medicine is an integral part of TCM. It involves the use of various herbs, minerals, and animal products to restore balance and treat specific health conditions. Herbal formulas are tailored to individual needs and may be combined to create a synergistic effect. Tui Na and Qi Gong: Tui Na is a form of therapeutic massage in TCM that stimulates specific points and meridians to promote the flow of Qi and relieve musculoskeletal ailments. Qi Gong involves breathing exercises, movements, and meditation techniques to cultivate and balance Qi.

Psychoanalytical and psychosomatic views

Psychoanalytical View The psychoanalytical view, based on the work of Sigmund Freud, proposed that unconscious conflicts and psychological factors could contribute to physical symptoms and illness. According to this perspective, unresolved emotional conflicts and repressed thoughts or feelings could manifest as physical symptoms or disorders. Health psychologists influenced by the psychoanalytical view explored the link between psychological processes, such as defense mechanisms and emotional expression, and physical health outcomes. While psychoanalysis may not be the primary theoretical framework within contemporary health psychology, there are several connections and applications:

Understanding the Mind-Body Connection: Psychoanalysis delves into the inner workings of the mind, exploring how unconscious conflicts and emotions can manifest in physical symptoms. Stress and Coping: Psychoanalytic principles can be applied to the study of stress and coping mechanisms. Psychoanalysis emphasizes the role of defense mechanisms and how individuals manage stress and anxiety. Health psychologists often investigate how effective or maladaptive coping strategies can impact health outcomes. Behavior Change and Motivation: Both psychoanalysis and health psychology deal with human behavior and motivation. Understanding the underlying psychological factors that drive behavior is essential in areas such as promoting healthy habits, adherence to medical treatment plans, and lifestyle changes. While psychoanalysis is not the dominant theoretical framework in health psychology, it can offer valuable insights into the psychological and emotional aspects of health, the role of the unconscious mind, and the complexities of human behavior. Health psychologists often draw on a range of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches, including cognitive-behavioral, humanistic, and psychodynamic perspectives, to better understand and address health-related issues.

Psychosomatic view The psychosomatic view in health psychology is an approach that explores the interaction between psychological factors and physical health. This perspective suggests that emotional and psychological factors can significantly influence an individual’s physical well-being, and it emphasizes the mind-body connection. Here are some key points related to the psychosomatic view of health psychology:

  1. Emotions and Physical Health: The psychosomatic view asserts that emotions and mental states can impact physical health. Stress, anxiety, and depression, for example, are believed to contribute to various health conditions and affect the body’s physiological functioning.

  2. Psychosomatic Disorders: This perspective examines psychosomatic disorders, which are conditions where psychological factors are thought to play a primary role in the development or exacerbation of physical symptoms. Common examples include somatic symptom disorders and conversion disorders.

  3. Mind-Body Interactions: The psychosomatic view highlights the bidirectional relationship between the mind and body. Psychological stress can lead to physical symptoms, and addressing the underlying psychological issues can be essential for treating or managing physical health conditions.

  4. Holistic Health Approach: Health psychologists following the psychosomatic view advocate for a holistic approach to healthcare, which takes into account the psychological and emotional well-being of the individual alongside their physical health.

  5. Behavioral and Psychological Interventions: In this view, interventions may include psychological therapies, stress management, and relaxation techniques to address the psychological factors contributing to health problems.

It’s important to note that while the psychosomatic view of health psychology recognizes the impact of emotions and psychological factors on health, it does not discount the role of biological and environmental factors. Health psychologists often consider a range of factors, including biology, psychology, and social influences, to provide a comprehensive understanding of health and well-being.

Difference between acute and chronic illness / organic and psychogenic diseases.

Acute vs. Chronic Illness:

  1. Acute Illness:

    • Acute illnesses are characterized by a sudden onset and a short duration.
    • They often have a clear cause or trigger, such as an infection or injury.
    • Acute illnesses typically resolve relatively quickly with treatment or on their own.
    • Examples include the flu, a common cold, or a brief episode of food poisoning.
  2. Chronic Illness:

    • Chronic illnesses are long-lasting and may persist for an extended period, often for the rest of a person’s life.
    • They may have a gradual onset and may not have a single identifiable cause.
    • Chronic illnesses require ongoing management, and treatment focuses on symptom control and improving the individual’s quality of life.
    • Examples include diabetes, hypertension, and autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.

Organic vs. Psychogenic Diseases:

  1. Organic Diseases:

    • Organic diseases have a physical or structural basis, often involving abnormalities in bodily organs or systems.
    • They can often be identified through medical tests, imaging, or laboratory assessments.
    • Treatment for organic diseases usually involves medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or physical therapies.
    • Examples include heart disease, cancer, and infectious diseases.
  2. Psychogenic Diseases:

    • Psychogenic diseases are primarily driven by psychological factors, such as emotional stress, trauma, or psychological conflicts.
    • These diseases may not have readily identifiable physical or structural causes in medical assessments.
    • Treatment for psychogenic diseases often involves psychotherapy, stress management, and addressing the underlying emotional issues.
    • Examples include somatic symptom disorders, conversion disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses.

Describe pain and it’s sensory emotional dimension

Pain is a complex sensory and emotional experience that can be described in two primary dimensions:

Stroke, heart diesease, HIV AIDS, asthma and cancer write symptoms, treatment and psych rehabilitatio)


Cardiovascular Disease (CVD):

Definition: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) encompass a range of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. These include coronary artery disease, heart failure, and hypertension.

Symptoms: Symptoms vary depending on the specific CVD but may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, and swelling of the legs.

Treatment: Treatment for CVD often involves lifestyle modifications, medications, and, in some cases, surgical interventions. Lifestyle changes include diet, exercise, and stress management.

Psychological Rehabilitation: Psychological rehabilitation for individuals with CVD often focuses on managing stress and anxiety, as these factors can influence the progression of the disease. Stress reduction techniques and behavioral interventions may be part of the rehabilitation plan.


Definition: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is the late stage of HIV infection. It weakens the immune system, making it difficult for the body to fight infections and diseases.

Symptoms: Early symptoms of HIV may include flu-like symptoms, while advanced stages can lead to severe illnesses and opportunistic infections.

Treatment: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the standard treatment for HIV. It helps control the virus’s replication and progression to AIDS. There is no cure, but ART can allow individuals to lead healthy lives.

Psychological Rehabilitation: Psychological rehabilitation for HIV/AIDS patients may involve addressing the stigma and emotional challenges associated with the disease. Counseling and support groups can help individuals cope with the psychological aspects of living with HIV.


Definition: Asthma is a chronic respiratory condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to difficulty breathing.

Symptoms: Symptoms of asthma can include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

Treatment: Asthma is typically managed with medications, including bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs. Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding triggers, are also important.

Psychological Rehabilitation: Psychological rehabilitation for asthma patients may involve addressing anxiety and fear related to breathing difficulties. Stress management and relaxation techniques can be beneficial.


Definition: Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body.

Symptoms: Symptoms of cancer vary depending on the type and stage but may include unexplained weight loss, pain, fatigue, and changes in the skin or moles.

Treatment: Cancer treatment can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others. The treatment plan depends on the type and stage of cancer.

Psychological Rehabilitation: Psychological rehabilitation for cancer patients often involves addressing anxiety, depression, and adjustment issues. Support groups and counseling can help patients cope with the emotional impact of cancer and its treatment.

Define global and community health

Global Health is a multidisciplinary field that focuses on improving health outcomes and achieving equity in health across the entire global population. It deals with health issues that transcend national boundaries and addresses health disparities, infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, environmental health concerns, and other health-related challenges on a global scale. Global health initiatives often involve collaboration between governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), international agencies, and various stakeholders to develop and implement strategies that promote health and well-being Worldwide.

Community Health refers to the study and practice of promoting and protecting the health and well-being of a specific community or population. It is a field within public health that focuses on understanding the health needs, behaviors, and risks of a particular group of people living in a defined geographical area or sharing common characteristics. The primary goal of community health is to improve the overall health status of the community and enhance the quality of life for its residents.

Explain gate control theory of pain

Gate Control Theory of Pain:

The Gate Control Theory of Pain, proposed by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall in 1965, is a comprehensive model that describes how pain is perceived and modulated by the nervous system. This theory suggests that pain is not solely a result of direct sensory input from damaged tissue but is also influenced by various factors, including emotional, cognitive, and sensory components.

Key components of the Gate Control Theory of Pain:

The Gate Mechanism: In this theory, there is a “gate” in the spinal cord that can either allow or block the transmission of pain signals to the brain. The gate is controlled by a balance of activity in different types of nerve fibers.

Sensory Nerve Fibers: There are two primary types of sensory nerve fibers involved in pain transmission:

Small-diameter, slow-conducting pain fibers (C fibers) that transmit pain signals to the brain. Large-diameter, fast-conducting nerve fibers (A-beta fibers) that can inhibit the transmission of pain signals.

Control of Pain Signals: According to the Gate Control Theory, when pain signals from the C fibers are transmitted to the brain, the gate is open, and individuals experience pain. However, when the A-beta fibers are activated (e.g., through non-painful touch or other sensory input), they can close the gate and reduce the perception of pain.

Psychological and Cognitive Factors: The theory also acknowledges that psychological and cognitive factors play a role in pain perception. Emotions, attention, and expectations can influence whether the gate is open or closed. For example, stress and anxiety can increase the perception of pain, while distraction and relaxation can help close the gate and reduce pain.

Write about intervention method for drugs, alcohol and tobacco use.

Intervention Methods for Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use:

Prevention and Education: Prevention programs aim to reduce the initiation of substance use, particularly among youth. Education involves providing information about the risks and consequences of drug, alcohol, and tobacco use. This can be done through school-based programs, public health campaigns, and community initiatives.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT is a well-established approach for treating substance use disorders. It focuses on identifying and changing the thoughts and behaviors that contribute to substance use. In the case of tobacco use, CBT can help individuals develop coping strategies for nicotine cravings and triggers.

Pharmacological Treatments: Pharmacological treatments are available for alcohol and tobacco addiction. Medications such as naltrexone and bupropion can help reduce alcohol cravings and aid in smoking cessation.

Residential Treatment Programs: For individuals with severe substance use disorders, residential treatment programs offer an intensive, structured environment for recovery. These programs often combine medical, psychological, and social support.

Support Groups: Support groups like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) provide peer support and a structured approach to recovery. These groups offer a sense of community and accountability.

Family and Social Interventions: In many cases, involving the family or social network in the treatment process can be beneficial. Family therapy and social support can help individuals in their recovery journey.

Harm Reduction: Harm reduction approaches focus on reducing the negative consequences of substance use, even if complete abstinence is not initially achievable. This can involve providing clean needles, safe injection sites, or access to naloxone for opioid overdose reversal.

Aftercare and Relapse Prevention: After completing a primary treatment program, individuals benefit from aftercare and relapse prevention strategies to maintain their recovery and address potential relapses.

Module 3

Explain the concept of health locus control, unrealistic optimism of health behavior

Health Locus of Control Health locus of control is a psychological concept that refers to an individual’s beliefs about the extent to which they have control over their own health and well-being. It is based on the broader concept of “locus of control,” which was originally developed by psychologist Julian Rotter.

There are two main dimensions of health locus of control:

  1. Internal Health Locus of Control:

    • Individuals with a high internal health locus of control believe that their health and well-being are primarily influenced by their own behaviors, choices, and actions.
    • They believe that they have control over their health outcomes and that their lifestyle decisions and adherence to medical recommendations play a significant role in determining their health. Example: Someone with a strong internal health locus of control may believe that their health and well-being are largely influenced by their lifestyle choices, such as diet, exercise, and stress management. They feel that they have control over their health outcomes and are responsible for making healthy decisions.
  2. External Health Locus of Control:

    • Individuals with a high external health locus of control believe that their health is influenced by external factors outside of their control, such as luck, fate, chance, genetics, or powerful others (e.g., healthcare providers).
    • They may feel that their health is determined by factors beyond their influence, leading to a sense of helplessness in managing their health. Example: An individual with a strong external health locus of control may attribute their health outcomes to factors beyond their control, such as genetics, luck, or the healthcare system. They may feel that their health is determined by external forces, and that their actions have less impact.

The health locus of control concept can be applied in various health-related situations. Here are a few examples:

Smoking Cessation: Someone with a strong internal health locus of control may believe that their decision to quit smoking is crucial for their health. They may view it as a personal choice. In contrast, a person with a strong external health locus of control may believe that quitting smoking is mainly dependent on factors like genetic predisposition to addiction.

Unrealistic optimism of health Unrealistic optimism in the context of health behavior typically refers to a cognitive bias where individuals believe that they are less likely to experience negative health outcomes compared to others, even when objective evidence suggests otherwise. In other words, they unrealistically perceive their risk as lower than it actually is. This bias can impact health-related decision-making and behaviors.

Unrealistic optimism can manifest in various ways, such as underestimating personal risk factors for diseases like heart disease, cancer, or HIV/AIDS, or believing that harmful behaviors, like smoking or unhealthy eating, will not lead to negative health consequences for them personally.

Niel Weinstein, who has conducted research in the field of health psychology, has contributed to the study of unrealistic optimism in health behavior. His work and research findings have helped shed light on the psychological mechanisms underlying this bias and its implications for health promotion and risk communication.

Definee key concepts of HBM/ leventhal’s model and protection motivation model

Health Belief Model (HBM): The Health Belief Model is a psychological framework that explains and predicts health-related behaviors. It includes the following key concepts: Perceived Susceptibility: This concept refers to an individual’s belief about their vulnerability to a particular health threat or illness. People are more likely to take preventive actions if they perceive themselves as susceptible to the condition. Perceived Severity: Perceived severity relates to an individual’s assessment of how serious a health threat or illness is. The perception of greater severity can motivate individuals to take action to avoid the negative consequences. Perceived Benefits: Perceived benefits are the individual’s belief that taking a specific health action will reduce their susceptibility or severity of the health threat. If they believe that the benefits outweigh the costs or barriers, they are more likely to take action. Perceived Barriers: Perceived barriers represent the obstacles or costs that individuals associate with taking a recommended health action. The higher the perceived barriers, the less likely individuals are to engage in the behavior. Cues to Action: Cues to action are triggers that prompt individuals to take health-related action. These cues can be internal (e.g., symptoms) or external (e.g., media campaigns). Self-Efficacy: While not an original component of the HBM, self-efficacy, based on Albert Bandura’s theory, is often integrated into the model. Self-efficacy reflects an individual’s belief in their ability to successfully perform the recommended health action.

Leventhal’s Self-Regulation Model of Illness: Leventhal’s Self-Regulation Model of Illness is a broader framework that emphasizes how individuals process information about their health conditions. Key concepts include:

Cognitive Representations: Individuals form cognitive representations of their illness, including its identity (what it is), timeline (how long it will last), consequences (what it will do), causes (what led to it), and control (how it can be managed). Emotional Representations: Alongside cognitive representations, people develop emotional responses to their illness. These emotions can influence their coping strategies and health-related behaviors. Coping Strategies: Coping strategies refer to the actions and behaviors individuals adopt to manage their illness. These strategies can be adaptive or maladaptive and depend on the cognitive and emotional representations.

Here’s a practical example using a common health condition, such as diabetes:

  1. Cognitive Representation:

Identity: A person is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and they recognize it as a chronic health condition that affects their blood sugar levels. Timeline: They perceive that diabetes is a long-term condition that they will have to manage for the rest of their life. Consequences: The individual understands that uncontrolled diabetes can lead to various health complications, such as heart disease, kidney problems, and vision issues. Control/Cure: They believe that diabetes can be managed through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring.

  1. Emotional Representation:

Emotional Response: The person may experience various emotions like anxiety, frustration, and concern upon receiving the diabetes diagnosis. These emotions are part of their emotional representation.

  1. Coping Strategies:

Control Strategies: The person decides to take control of their diabetes through self-management strategies, including monitoring blood sugar levels, adhering to a diabetic diet, and taking prescribed medications. Coping with Emotional Distress: They seek support from healthcare professionals, join a diabetes support group, or engage in relaxation techniques to cope with the emotional distress associated with the condition.

Protection Motivation Model (PMM): The Protection Motivation Model is a psychological framework used to understand how people respond to fear-based health messages. Key concepts include:

Threat Appraisal: This is the evaluation of the perceived threat, including perceived severity (how severe the threat is) and perceived vulnerability (how likely it is to occur). Coping Appraisal: Coping appraisal assesses an individual’s perception of their ability to effectively cope with the threat. This includes perceived response efficacy (whether the recommended action will effectively reduce the threat) and self-efficacy (one’s belief in their ability to perform the recommended action). Protection Motivation: Protection motivation represents the overall motivation to protect oneself from the threat. It results from the combination of threat appraisal and coping appraisal. example : wearing a seatbelt while driving Ta : recognising seriousness of potential car accident Ca : People evaluate the effectiveness of wearing a seatbelt in preventing or reducing injury in a car accident PM: Fear of the consequences of an accident can motivate individuals to wear seatbelts, as they want to avoid the negative outcomes. Protective behaviour : Based on their threat and coping appraisals, individuals decide to wear a seatbelt every time they get into a vehicle.

Examine doctor-patient communication effectiveness

Effective doctor-patient communication is essential in healthcare, as it forms the foundation for building trust, ensuring patient understanding, and achieving positive health outcomes. The communication between doctors and patients should be characterized by: Active Listening: Doctors should actively listen to patients, giving them ample time to express their concerns, feelings, and health beliefs. This helps build trust and ensures that the patient’s perspective is considered in diagnosis and treatment. Empathy: Understanding and acknowledging the patient’s emotions and beliefs about their health is crucial. Empathetic communication can help alleviate anxiety and enhance the patient’s overall experience. Respect for Diversity: Recognize that patients come from diverse cultural backgrounds, and their health beliefs may differ significantly. Be respectful of these differences and avoid making assumptions about a patient’s values or preferences. Clear and Jargon-Free Language: Use plain language when explaining medical concepts, diagnoses, and treatment options. Avoid medical jargon that may confuse or intimidate patients. Health Literacy: Assess the patient’s health literacy level and adjust communication accordingly. Provide educational materials and resources in a format that the patient can understand. Privacy and Confidentiality: Ensure that the conversation takes place in a private and confidential setting to facilitate open and honest communication. Follow-Up: After the initial conversation, follow up with patients to assess their progress, address any concerns, and make necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Module 4

PERMA model and GAS -define

PERMA Model: well-known framework in positive psychology developed by Martin Seligman. It focuses on five essential elements that contribute to well-being and happiness:

Positive Emotion (P): Positive emotions, such as joy, gratitude, and contentment, contribute to overall well-being. Experiencing positive emotions is associated with improved health and longevity. Engagement (E): Engagement refers to being fully absorbed in an activity or experiencing a state of flow. Engaging in activities that align with one’s interests and strengths can promote psychological well-being and reduce stress. Relationships (R): Positive relationships and social connections are crucial for well-being. Having a strong social support network can help individuals cope with stress and lead to better health outcomes. Meaning (M): Finding meaning and purpose in life is associated with improved mental and physical health. People who have a sense of purpose tend to engage in healthier behaviors. Accomplishment (A): Accomplishment refers to setting and achieving goals. A sense of accomplishment can boost self-esteem and overall well-being.

Example: In the context of health psychology, individuals who incorporate the elements of the PERMA model into their lives may experience better mental and physical health outcomes. For instance, maintaining positive relationships and engaging in activities that provide a sense of meaning can reduce stress, boost the immune system, and promote overall well-being.

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): The General Adaptation Syndrome, formulated by Hans Selye, is a stress response model that describes how the body reacts to chronic stress. It consists of three stages:

Alarm Reaction: In this initial stage, the body recognizes a stressor and activates the “fight or flight” response. Stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol are released to prepare the body for action. Resistance: During this stage, the body attempts to adapt to the ongoing stressor. It may allocate resources to manage the stress, leading to potential long-term health issues if the stress continues. Exhaustion: If the stressor persists and the body’s resources are depleted, the individual enters the exhaustion stage. At this point, the body’s ability to cope with stress diminishes, and physical and psychological health can be severely compromised.

Example: Consider a person experiencing chronic work-related stress. In the alarm reaction stage, they may feel heightened anxiety and have an increased heart rate. In the resistance stage, they might adapt to the stressor by developing coping strategies. However, if the stress continues unabated, they may eventually reach the exhaustion stage, leading to potential health problems like burnout, cardiovascular issues, and compromised immune function. Understanding the GAS model can help individuals and healthcare professionals address the impact of chronic stress on health and well-being.

Examine the method of preventing illness and importance of health promotion

Methods of Preventing Illness: Primary Prevention: This involves strategies to prevent the onset of illness or injury. It includes actions such as immunizations, health education, and lifestyle interventions to reduce risk factors (e.g., smoking cessation, healthy eating, and regular physical activity). Secondary Prevention: Secondary prevention aims to identify and treat diseases or conditions in their early stages, before they cause significant harm. Screening and early detection programs, like mammograms for breast cancer or cholesterol tests for heart disease, are examples of secondary prevention. Tertiary Prevention: Tertiary prevention focuses on reducing the impact of established diseases and preventing complications or disability. It includes medical treatment, rehabilitation, and disease management to improve an individual’s quality of life and reduce further complications. Behavior Change Interventions: Promoting healthy behaviors is a key method of preventing illness. Encouraging people to adopt and maintain healthy lifestyles, such as regular exercise, a balanced diet, and stress management, can significantly reduce the risk of various chronic diseases. Public Health Initiatives: Public health measures, such as sanitation, clean water, and vaccination programs, are essential for preventing the spread of infectious diseases and improving community health.

Importance of Health Promotion: Health promotion is a proactive approach to improving overall health and well-being by addressing the determinants of health and enhancing protective factors. It is crucial for several reasons:

Preventive Focus: Health promotion aims to prevent illness and injury, which is more cost-effective and sustainable than treating established diseases. Enhancing Quality of Life: Health promotion contributes to improving the quality of life by encouraging healthy behaviors and addressing factors that influence health and well-being. Empowering Individuals: Health promotion empowers individuals to take control of their health through informed decisions and healthier choices. It encourages a sense of personal responsibility. Reducing Health Disparities: Health promotion efforts often target vulnerable populations and aim to reduce health disparities, ensuring that all individuals have equal access to health resources and opportunities. Long-Term Health: By emphasizing the importance of healthy lifestyles and early detection, health promotion can lead to long-term health benefits and reduce the burden of chronic diseases. Health Education: Health promotion provides opportunities for health education and awareness, allowing individuals to make informed choices about their health.

Concept of resillience in psychological health, strategies to improve resillience

Concept of Resilience in Psychological Health: Resilience in psychological health refers to an individual’s ability to adapt, bounce back, and recover from adversity, stress, or challenging life situations. Resilient individuals can maintain their mental and emotional well-being in the face of difficulties. Key components of resilience include Adaptability: Resilient individuals can adjust to new circumstances and challenges, even when those circumstances are stressful or adverse. Emotional Regulation: They can manage and regulate their emotions effectively, preventing overwhelming emotional reactions to stressors. Problem-Solving Skills: Resilience often involves strong problem-solving and coping skills, allowing individuals to find constructive solutions to their challenges. Social Support: A robust social support network is crucial for resilience. Having friends, family, or a community that can provide emotional support and assistance is vital. Positive Mindset: Resilient individuals tend to maintain a positive outlook, even in difficult times. They often focus on their strengths and resources.

Strategies to Improve Resilience: Practice Stress Reduction Techniques: Incorporate stress reduction techniques like mindfulness, meditation, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation into your daily routine to manage stress effectively. Physical Well-Being: A healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and sufficient sleep, can contribute to resilience. Seek Professional Help: If you’re facing significant challenges or struggling with your mental health, don’t hesitate to seek support from a mental health professional. Therapy or counseling can provide valuable strategies for improving resilience. Build Emotional Intelligence: Enhance your emotional intelligence by developing self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, and social skills. This can improve your ability to handle stress and adapt to challenging situations. Set Realistic Goals: Break down your goals into manageable, achievable steps. This can prevent feeling overwhelmed and help you stay on track, even in the face of adversity. Maintain a Supportive Network: Surround yourself with people who provide emotional support, encouragement, and positive influence. Connecting with a support network can bolster your resilience. Self-Care: Prioritize self-care activities that promote relaxation and well-being, such as hobbies, leisure time, and activities that bring joy and satisfaction.

Module 5

Impact of awareness program in urban and rural India

Rural Areas Community Health Workers: Utilize trained community health workers (ASHAs - Accredited Social Health Activists in India) to deliver health education and information to the rural population. They are often trusted figures within the community Local Language: Communicate in the local language and use culturally sensitive materials to ensure information is easily understood and relatable to the rural population. Village Meetings and Camps: Organize health camps and community meetings to provide information on sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and immunization. These events can also serve as platforms for interactive discussions and Q&A sessions. Visual Aids: Use visual aids like posters, pamphlets, and videos to explain key health concepts, especially in areas with low literacy rates.

Urban Areas Public Health Campaigns: Use mass media platforms like television, radio, and billboards to reach a broader urban audience. Public service announcements can raise awareness about health issues. School Programs: Introduce health education in schools, covering topics like hygiene, nutrition, and the importance of physical activity. Children can also influence their families’ health practices. Corporate Health Programs: Partner with large corporations to offer health and wellness programs for their employees, which can then extend to their families and communities. Online and Social Media: Utilize digital platforms and social media to reach urban populations. Create informative websites, social media pages, and mobile apps for health education and awareness.

Interaction between genetics and lifestyle choices in health outcome

Interaction between Genetics and Lifestyle Choices in Health Outcome:

Genetic Predisposition: Genetics can influence an individual’s susceptibility to certain health conditions. Some people may have genetic variations that make them more prone to conditions like heart disease, diabetes, or certain types of cancer. Lifestyle Choices: Lifestyle choices, including diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption, play a significant role in health outcomes. Unhealthy lifestyle choices can increase the risk of various diseases and conditions. Gene-Environment Interaction: Health outcomes often result from the interplay between genetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle choices. The effects of genetic predisposition may be amplified or mitigated by an individual’s behaviors and environment.


Heart Disease: A person with a family history of heart disease may have a genetic predisposition. However, their lifestyle choices, such as maintaining a healthy diet, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking, can significantly influence their risk of developing heart disease. Lifestyle changes can mitigate the impact of genetics. Type 2 Diabetes: Genetics can contribute to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but lifestyle factors, including diet and physical activity, play a pivotal role in its onset and management. An individual with a genetic predisposition can reduce their risk by making healthy dietary choices and staying active. Cancer Risk: Certain genetic mutations are associated with an increased risk of cancer. However, lifestyle choices such as avoiding tobacco, limiting alcohol consumption, eating a balanced diet, and engaging in cancer screenings can help lower the risk or detect cancer at an earlier, more treatable stage. Obesity: Genetic factors can influence an individual’s susceptibility to obesity. However, lifestyle choices related to diet and physical activity are primary determinants of weight and obesity risk. Individuals can make choices to manage their weight effectively, even with a genetic predisposition.

Prove bidirectional relationship between psychological and physical health citing some research

The bidirectional relationship between psychological and physical health is a well-established concept in the field of health psychology. Numerous studies and research provide evidence for this relationship. Here are some simple examples of research findings that support the idea of a bidirectional relationship:

Stress and Immune Function:

Research has shown that chronic stress can have a negative impact on the immune system. For example, a study published in the journal “Psychosomatic Medicine” in 2003 found that caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, who experienced high levels of chronic stress, had lower immune function compared to non-caregivers. Conversely, improving psychological well-being, such as through mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programs, has been associated with enhanced immune function. A study published in the “Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences” in 2009 demonstrated the positive effects of MBSR on immune response.

Depression and Cardiovascular Health:

Depression is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A study published in “Circulation” in 2015 found that individuals with depression have a higher risk of heart disease and heart-related mortality. At the same time, research has shown that improving cardiovascular health through regular exercise can have a positive impact on mood and reduce the symptoms of depression. Exercise has been found to release endorphins and other chemicals that improve mood and reduce the risk of depression.

Anxiety and Gastrointestinal Health:

Anxiety disorders are often linked to gastrointestinal problems. Research published in the journal “Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology” in 2018 showed that individuals with anxiety disorders are at a higher risk of developing gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Conversely, studies have demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other psychological interventions can help manage the symptoms of IBS and improve gastrointestinal health in individuals with anxiety.

Explain role of HBM and self efficacy in predicting health behavior Role in Predicting Health Behavior:

The HBM and self-efficacy often work together in predicting health behavior:

The HBM addresses cognitive factors that influence behavior by considering perceptions of susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, and cues to action. Self-efficacy is a key component of the HBM, as it affects individuals’ confidence in their ability to take the recommended action. It directly influences whether they believe they can successfully carry out the behavior suggested by the HBM. For example, if an individual believes that they are susceptible to heart disease (HBM’s perceived susceptibility), understands the severe consequences of the disease (HBM’s perceived severity), and recognizes the benefits of a heart-healthy diet (HBM’s perceived benefits), their self-efficacy plays a critical role in determining whether they will actually adopt and maintain a heart-healthy diet.

Overall, the HBM and self-efficacy are complementary frameworks that provide insight into the psychological processes involved in predicting and understanding health behaviors. Health psychologists often use these concepts in developing interventions and strategies to promote health behavior change.

What are primary secondary and tirtieary model provide examples

Primary Prevention: Goal: Primary prevention aims to prevent the onset of diseases or health conditions before they occur. It focuses on reducing risk factors and promoting overall health and well-being.


Health Education and Promotion: Providing information and resources to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles, such as encouraging regular exercise and a balanced diet. Immunization: Administering vaccines to protect against infectious diseases like0 measles, mumps, and polio. Environmental Modifications: Making changes to the environment to reduce health risks, such as improving water quality or air pollution control. Behavioral Interventions: Encouraging the adoption of safe behaviors, like the use of seatbelts, helmets, or condoms. Example: Childhood vaccinations to prevent diseases like measles and mumps are primary prevention measures. By vaccinating children, these diseases can be prevented from occurring in the first place.

Secondary Prevention: Goal: Secondary prevention focuses on identifying and treating diseases or health conditions at an early, asymptomatic stage when they are easier to manage and before they cause significant harm.


Screening Programs: Regular screening tests, such as mammograms for breast cancer or colonoscopies for colorectal cancer, are used to detect diseases in their early stages. Early Intervention: Prompt treatment and management of identified health conditions to prevent complications and reduce the progression of the disease. Example: Routine mammograms for breast cancer screening aim to detect breast cancer at an early stage when it is more treatable, potentially preventing the spread and reducing mortality.

Tertiary Prevention: Goal: Tertiary prevention focuses on managing and mitigating the impact of established diseases or health conditions. It aims to prevent complications, improve the quality of life, and reduce disability.


Rehabilitation Programs: Providing therapy and support to individuals recovering from injuries or surgeries to regain function and mobility. Disease Management: Developing treatment and management plans for individuals with chronic diseases, like diabetes or heart disease. Supportive Care: Offering palliative care and support services for individuals with terminal illnesses to enhance their comfort and well-being. Example: Cardiac rehabilitation programs for individuals who have suffered a heart attack fall under tertiary prevention. These programs help individuals recover and reduce the risk of future cardiac events.

Importance of social media in creating awareness Promoting health in different socio economic groups Importance of educating risky sexual behavior

Educating about risky sexual behavior, including comprehensive sex education, understanding consent and safe sex practices, peer education, parental involvement, and awareness of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), is of paramount importance for several reasons: Prevention of STIs and Unintended Pregnancies: Comprehensive sex education provides individuals with accurate information about sexual health, contraception, and STIs. This knowledge empowers them to make informed decisions, reducing the risk of contracting STIs and preventing unintended pregnancies. Promotion of Safe Sex Practices: Understanding consent and safe sex practices helps individuals develop healthy and respectful relationships. It promotes the use of barrier methods (e.g., condoms) and regular testing for STIs, reducing the transmission of infections. Reduction of Sexual Violence and Coercion: Educating about consent is crucial for preventing sexual violence and coercion. It promotes the importance of mutual agreement and respect in sexual interactions, emphasizing that any sexual activity without consent is unacceptable. Empowerment and Autonomy: Sex education empowers individuals to take control of their sexual health and make choices that align with their values and preferences. It fosters autonomy and self-efficacy in decision-making. Reduction of Stigma: Education about STIs helps reduce stigma surrounding these infections. When people are informed about the realities of STIs, it can reduce discrimination and promote support for affected individuals. Peer Education: Peer education can be highly effective in reaching young people. Peers can provide relatable, non-judgmental information and support. This approach encourages open discussions and the sharing of experiences.

Holistic health promotion and it’s relevance in promoting overall health

  • The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari: A 1920 German silent horror film directed by Robert Wiene. Some of the main characters are:

    • Dr. Caligari: An insane hypnotist who uses a somnambulist named Cesare to commit murders.
    • Cesare: A sleepwalker who is under Caligari’s control and can predict the future.
    • Francis: A young man who tells the story of Caligari and Cesare in a flashback. He is in love with Jane and tries to stop Caligari’s crimes.
    • Jane: Francis’s fiancĂ©e who is kidnapped by Cesare but later rescued by the townspeople.
  • Gone with the Wind: A 1939 American epic historical romance film based on the novel by Margaret Mitchell. Some of the main characters are:

    • Scarlett O’Hara: The protagonist of the film, a headstrong Southern belle who is determined to survive the Civil War and its aftermath. She marries three times and has a turbulent relationship with Rhett Butler.
    • Rhett Butler: A roguish businessman who falls in love with Scarlett and admires her courage and ambition. He is often at odds with Scarlett and the society around him.
    • Ashley Wilkes: A Southern gentleman who is married to Melanie Hamilton, but is also the object of Scarlett’s obsession. He is loyal to his wife and his ideals, but is unable to cope with the changing world.
    • Melanie Hamilton Wilkes: Ashley’s wife and Scarlett’s sister-in-law. She is a kind and gentle woman who sees the best in everyone, especially Scarlett. She is devoted to her husband and her family.
  • A Clockwork Orange: A 1971 British dystopian crime film directed by Stanley Kubrick, based on the novel by Anthony Burgess. Some of the main characters are:

    • Alex: The narrator and protagonist of the film, a fifteen-year-old leader of a gang of violent criminals who enjoy classical music and r/pe. He undergoes a controversial treatment that makes him unable to commit any crime.
    • F. Alexander: A writer and political dissident whose wife is r/ped and killed by Alex’s gang. He later recognizes Alex as one of his attackers and tries to use him as a weapon against the government.
    • Minister of the Interior: A high-ranking government official who selects Alex as the first candidate for the Ludovico Technique, a method of behavior modification that aims to reduce crime.
    • Dr. Brodsky: The behavioral scientist in charge of administering the Ludovico Technique to Alex. He is sadistic and ignorant of classical music, which he uses to intensify Alex’s emotions during the treatment


  • Media trials refer to the phenomenon where the media creates a preconceived narrative about a case or an individual before the court has reached a verdict. This can lead to public opinion being swayed, potentially impacting the fairness of the trial.
  • The term “media trial” gained prominence with cases like Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle and O.J. Simpson, where media coverage heavily influenced public perception and, arguably, the outcomes of their legal proceedings.
  • Paid news is another critical issue, where content that appears to be legitimate news is actually paid for by individuals or organizations, leading to biased and unbalanced reporting. This practice undermines journalistic integrity and misleads the public.
  • In India, the practice of paid news has been prevalent, with instances of politicians and businesses paying for favorable news coverage, which is often not disclosed as paid content.
  • The Press Council of India has acknowledged the problem of paid news and media trials, emphasizing their negative impact on the administration of justice and the essential principles of a fair trial.
  • Both media trials and paid news raise significant ethical concerns about the role of media in society and its influence on democracy, highlighting the need for more robust regulations and ethical standards in journalism.

The Chanda Committee was established under the direction of Mrs. Indira Gandhi in 1964 to investigate Indian broadcasting and presented its report in 1966.

  • Led by Ashok Kumar Chanda, the committee critically assessed the state’s financial and administrative restrictions on media, particularly radio and television.

  • It provided 219 recommendations, advocating for the independence of All India Radio and Doordarshan, and suggested that television should not be seen as a luxury but as a medium requiring psychological transformation in state approaches.

    Separation of Akashvani and Doordarshan: The committee emphasized the need to separate radio (Akashwani) and television (Doordarshan) to enhance their independence and effectiveness.

  • Autonomous Corporation for AIR: It proposed that All India Radio should function as an autonomous corporation, free from the rigid financial and administrative procedures of the government.

  • Introduction of Advertisements: The committee recommended that advertisements be aired on both All India Radio and Doordarshan to generate revenue and ensure financial sustainability.

  • Focus on Science and Agriculture:

  • Expansion of Rural Radio Stations: To reach a wider audience, the Chanda Committee called for an increase in the number of radio stations in rural areas.

The Varghese Committee, chaired by B.G. Verghese, was appointed by the Janta Government in 1977 to work on the autonomy of Akashwani and Doordarshan.

  • It recommended the formation of Akash Bharti or the National Broadcasting Trust for both AIR and Doordarshan, aiming for constitutional safeguards to prevent misuse of broadcasting.
  • The bold recommendations of the Varghese Committee were not favored by the ruling parties at the time, and the report was effectively sidelined.
  • The committee’s pivotal recommendation was the formation of “Akash Bharti” or the “National Broadcasting Trust” for both AIR and Doordarshan, aiming for substantial constitutional safeguards to ensure independence.
  • The Verghese Committee’s report was a bold move to prevent the misuse of broadcasting services by the executive, as witnessed during the Emergency period in India.
  • Despite the committee’s strong recommendations, they were not favored by the ruling Janata party at the time, leading to the report being effectively disregarded.
  • Subsequent developments, such as the introduction of the Prasar Bharti Bill, were influenced by the committee’s work but lacked the proposed constitutional safeguards.
  • The eventual establishment of Prasar Bharti, India’s public service broadcaster, can be seen as a diluted realization of the Verghese Committee’s vision.
  • Over time, the committee’s recommendations have contributed to the ongoing discourse on the need for functional freedom and independence in public broadcasting in India.

Recent controversies involving the Press Council of India, News Broadcasters Association, and Editors Guild of India include:

  • Press Council of India (PCI):
    • The PCI faced a significant controversy due to the delay in the appointment of a new chairman, leading to a standstill in its operations.
    • Members of the PCI called for an extraordinary meeting to discuss the non-appointment of the Chairman, which was later canceled at the last minute by the government-appointed secretary.
    • The PCI has been criticized for not having a head, which has affected its ability to function effectively and carry out its responsibilities.

The News Broadcasters Association (NBA), now known as the News Broadcasters & Digital Association (NBDA), represents the private television news, current affairs, and digital broadcasters in India.

  • It serves as the collective voice of the news and current affairs sector within the country, funded entirely by its member organizations.

  • The NBDA was established on July 3, 2007, by leading news broadcasters in India to address ethical, operational, regulatory, technical, and legal issues affecting news and current-affairs channels.

  • As of the latest update, the NBDA has 27 members representing 125 news and current affairs channels.

  • The association is committed to fostering high standards, ethics, and practices in news broadcasting and includes a mechanism for complaint redressal concerning content broadcast by its members.

  • The NBDA administers the Codes of Ethics & Broadcasting Standards, which have been voluntarily drawn up by the association to demonstrate its commitment to responsible broadcasting and self-regulation.

  • In August 2021, the NBA was renamed to NBDA to include digital media news broadcasters, reflecting the evolving nature of the broadcasting industry.

  • The NBDA also has an independent body known as the News Broadcasting & Digital Standards Authority (NBDSA) to adjudicate upon complaints about broadcasts.

  • Controversies have arisen in the past where NBA board members were accused of adopting double standards, particularly in relation to the TRP scam case investigation.

  • The founding members of the NBA included prominent broadcasters like Global Broadcast News Ltd., Independent News Service Pvt. Ltd., and others, with a board comprising various influential figures from the Indian news broadcasting industry.

  • Press Council of India (PCI):

    • A statutory body in India that regulates the print media.
    • Operates under the Press Council Act of 1978.
    • Aims to maintain the freedom of the press and improve the standards of newspapers and magazines.
    • Handles complaints against the press, issues advisories, and promotes ethical journalism practices.
  • Editors Guild of India:

    • A non-profit organization representing editors from Indian media.
    • Founded in 1978 with the objective of protecting press freedom and raising editorial standards.
    • Engages in advocacy for journalistic rights and addresses issues concerning press freedom.
    • Not a trade union but acts as a voice for editors and senior journalists in India.
    • The EGI members were protected from arrest by the India Supreme Court over FIRs filed by Manipur Police, accusing them of promoting enmity between different groups, defamation, and criminal conspiracy.
    • The Supreme Court termed the complaint against the EGI members a “counter-narrative of the government” and extended protection, questioning how the offense of promoting enmity between different groups was made out against the journalists’ body.
    • The EGI has been accused of possessing biased observations on ethnic conflicts in Manipur and even flaring up turmoil with its reporting initiatives.


Provide examples of recent cases or situations where the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Indian Constitution were invoked for justice or challenged due to legal complexities.