aims to decrease pain by decreasing fear through education about childbirth and breathing techniques are used 1. Natural Vaginal 2. Induced


Lamaze method educate how to handle pregnancy and breathing techniques special breathing technique during final stage of labor (dur pushing)


Surgical incision made in abdomen can be due to complications

reduces pain anesthesia in the spine if first birth is c-sec, 99% the next one is c-sec too

Breech Position

ass first. can’t breathe

Assisted Vaginal Delivery

  • Vaccuum
  • Forceps

Reasons for C-section

umblical cord prolapse breech placenta previa expecting multiple large baby uterine fibroid

Factors Affecting Miscarriage

  • age
  • mutagens
  • toxins
  • hormones
  • medication