• typically with frequencies of 300 gigahertz (GHz) and below.
  • cheapest form of entertainment
  • accessibility and availability
  • allowed information to be transmitted quickly and uniformly to vast populations

World Wars

  • early and powerful recruiting tool
  • Joseph Goebbels, German propaganda minister, called the radio the “eighth great power”, noting the influence of radio in promoting the Third Reich.

Great Depression

October 29, 1929 - Black Tuesday Franklin D Roosevelt

Cold War

term was first used by the English writer George Orwell in an article published in 1945 to refer to what he predicted would be a nuclear stalemate between “two or three monstrous super-states, each possessed of a weapon by which millions of people can be wiped out in a few seconds.”

“war of ideas”

Birth of Radio

1860s James Clark Maxwell predicted existence of electromagnetic waves

1885 Heinrich Hertz demonstrated that a wire carrying current can be swung to produce electromagnetic waves

1890s Marconi sent and received the first radio signals 1901 sent ‘S’ across the Atlantic Ocean! from England to Canada 1909 Nobel Prize given to Marconi

1900 Reginald Fesseden - first person to send audio via radio signals 1906 Reginald Fesseden - sent first public broadcast

1906 Lee de Forest - invented Audion; made live broadcasts possible


In June 1923 the Radio Club of Bombay made the first ever broadcast in the country.

When India attained independence, there were six radio stations in India, at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Tiruchirapalli and Lucknow.

1956 the name AKASHVANI

Vividh Bharati Service was launched in 1957

Tryst with Destiny Broadcast

Congress Radio

Usha Mehta Congress Radio Quit India Movement Broadcasted Freedom fighters


All India Radio (AIR), officially known since 1957 as Akashvani (literary meaning “Voice from the Sky”), is the national public radio broadcaster of India and is a division of Prasar Bharati. It was established in 1936.

All India Radio is the largest radio network in the world, and one of the largest broadcasting organisations in the world in terms of the number of languages broadcast and the spectrum of socio-economic and cultural diversity it serves

Vividh Bharathi (aka CBS)

On 3 October 1957, the Vividh Bharati Service was launched, to compete with Radio Ceylon. Commercial radio also known as the Commercial Broadcasting Service or CBS Had news, film music, short plays, music and comedy. It operates on different medium wave-band as well as FM frequencies in each city

Radio Ceylon

The history of Radio Ceylon dates back to 1925, when its first precursor, Colombo Radio, was launched on 16 December 1925

Colombo radio was the first radio station in Asia and the second oldest radio station in the world

Features and Characteristics of Radio

Link between Speaker and Listeners Intimate Mass communivation method Mobile Medium Cheap and Quick Medium

blind medium No shared experience one way channel of communication no feedback lacks the pictorial quality

A large section of receivers can be communicated quickly through radio radio is the major source of local news for many people needs relatively low infrastructure and overhead costs It can accommodate the last minute news story and sudden change in advertising messages. greater audience reach

radio brings programmes in 24 languages and 146 dialect.

amplitude modulation one of the oldest types of wireless broadcasting. sound quality isn’t always great as it often picks up electrical noise

Frequency Modulation Developed in the 1930s, the FM radio comes with many enhancements that make it popular to this day. improved sound quality with lower levels of electrical interference

Shortwave Radio This allows shortwave radio broadcasts to travel hundreds and even thousands of miles. In some cases, people can tune in to a broadcast from anywhere on the Earth.

Satellite Radio Satellite radio is a newer form of radio broadcasting. It’s commercial-based, requires a subscription, and is powered by satellites. This allows satellite radio to cover huge areas without compromising audio quality encrypted

Ham Radio Private participation wasn’t allowed until 1993 Amateur radio operators played an important part in the Indian independence movement with the establishment of illegal pro-independence radio stations in the 1940. Hobby


Community Radio Stations

They broadcast content that is popular and relevant to a local, specific audience

Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting

mid-1990s, soon after the Supreme Court of India ruled in its judgment of February 1995 that “airwaves are public property”.

Anna FM was India’s first campus “community” radio station

first community-based radio station licensed to an NGO (as distinct from campus-based radio) was launched on 15 October 2008, when Sangham Radio Medak district, Andhra Pradesh

News programmes are banned on community radio in India (as they are on commercial FM radio).

mission to promote, encourage, support and facilitate all functional and desirous Community Radio Stations in India and abroad, CRA has already hosted seven workshops for the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting

EK duniya anEK awaaz (Edaa)

community radio acts as a vehicle for the community and voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, NGOs and citizens to work in partnership to further community development aims

Aim of AIR - ‘Bahujan Hitaya : Bahujan Sukhaya’. inform, educate and entertain its audiences

18 FM stereo channels, called AIR FM Rainbow, targeting the urban audience FM Gold

Farm radio - All India Radio Farm & Home Broadcasts:

Kisan Vani (All India Radio)

Educational Radio -Started in 2000 March, owned by IGNOU - Gyan Vani

Gyan Vani station has a range of about 60 km and covers an entire city including the adjoining rural areas

Principles of Writing for Radio