(notes from grade 11; memory at a glance)

MemoryProcess of recording any learning that takes place and allows later access to the same as and when reqd Memory = encode, store and retrieve info Memory = storage and retrieval of info
Relation bw mem and learningWithout memory, learning is not possible. Without learning, nothing to remember. Memory = storage and retrieval of info. Learning = trace formation
Stage ModelEncoding Storage Retrieval. (Recording information, saving information, and recovering information)
EncodingSensory info converted into a form that can be entered into memory traces. Info visual images called ‘iconic images’ or auditory codes called ‘echonic images’. Olfactory, cutaneous, gustatory.
StorageLearning brings about changes in neurons in brain called neural changes = engrams / mem traces. Activated when memory needs to be recalled
RetrievalProcess by which info stored in memory is LOCATED for use. If info =/= encoded properly / stored adequately, then retrieval of mem won’t be correct
Who made modal model?Atkinson and Shiffrin
Modal Model flowchartSensory Register Short term memory Long term memory
Modal Model time thingySensory reg - extemely short interval, less than a second. Short term memory 15-20 seconds. Long term memory - Almost permanent; procedural, episodic, declarative
Types of memorySensory, short-term / working, long-term. Long term div into declarative and procedural memory. Declarative can be div into semantic and episodic memory. Other types : explicit, implicit, autobiographical, prospective
Sensory Memory”snapshot”, stores information that is sensory in nature (visual, auditory, etc). Replaced by new one / destroyed unless passed on to some other type of memory
Short term memorySensory stimuli is coded acoustically - converted into sounds. Can hold 7+/- 2 chunks and 15-20 seconds. STM LTM. Goes to rehearsal buffer. If it is rehearsed / processed goes to LTM. Otherwise forgotten. Eg - repeating number over and over until writing it down. As soon as we write, we forget. After purpose served, gone. If elaborative rehearsal, ie information is organized in some fashion, then LTM. Working memory. Three parts (Alan Baddeley).
ChunkMeaningful grouping of RELATED information in STM. Helps store more information. Also used in mnemonics
Parts of STMCentral Executive and sub components - visuospatial sketchpad, phonological loop
Central executive (STM)coordinates material to focus during decision-making and reasoning. Two sub parts - VS and PL
Visuospatial Sketchpad (STM)Visual and Spatial information
Phonological Loop (STM)Holds and organizes info related to speech, words and numbers
Why is STM called working memory?- organizes info to be stored in LTM -organizes information to be retrieved from LTM for use with cognitive functions such as perception, decision making, reasoning. Info from LTM is brought back to STM for this purpose. This combined with info already in STM helps us understand obj better
Long term memoryInfo that is rehearsed well passes onto LTM. Storage is more or less permanent. Unlimited capacity. Classified, organized and stored like library Can be classified into declarative and procedural memory
Declarative memoryFactual information like names, faces, dates. div into semantic and episodic
Procedural memorySkills and habits
semantic memorygk. rules of grammar and logic
constructive memoryinfo from small pieces made into a meaningful whole. char of semantic mem
episodic memoryautobiographical mem. personal experiences and events
Retrieval typesRecognition and Recall
RecognitionStating whether we have memory of an event, person, place, etc. Eg- identifying a suspect in a police lineup. Memory traces for that info are activated again if we are familiar with the person or answer
RecallRetrieving specific pieces of information on our own. Eg - Witness describing a thief and his appearance. We use retrieval cues
Retrieval cuesstimuli that we use to help remember info we feel unable to recall otherwise. Can be external or internal.
External cue is akacontext dependent cue
External Cuecontext dependent cue. Related to ext env. Eg - Place, smell, sound
Internal Cue akaState dependant cue
Internal cueState dependent cue. Internal factors like mood, emotion, nature, illness
More types of memoryExplicit, Implicit. Flashbulb memories, autobiographical memories, prospective memory
Explicit MemoryIntentional or conscious recollection of info. Remembering dates and events
Implicit memoryNot directly aware. Can affect subsequent performance and behaviour. Eg - stu draws margin but doesnt remember who taught him or when
Flashbulb memoriesVivid recollection of shocking or tragic events. Chance that facts get mixed with a little fiction. Special place in memory
Autobiographical MemoryEpisodic memory about events we have experienced
Prospective MemoryPlanning ahead for what we need to do later. Eg - alarm clock
MnemonicsGreek for memory techniques. Improve our ability to recall
1. Use of mnemonic devices. Flow charts, diagrams, charts, etc.
2. Organisation. Large mass can be shaped into a small meaningful structure. Eg VIBGYOR
3. Association. Newly acquired info is associated with readily available cues.
4. Method of Loci. Series of places which are habitually visited. Place items to be memorized at diff locations along the route
Economic Methods of Memorization1) Massed and Spaced learning
2) Part and Whole learning
3) Overlearning
4) Repetition and relearning
5) Rote learning
ForgettingImportant for functioning of memory. Don’t need all details; because it’ll be a burden. Only summarization of important info. Forgetting unnecessary info is as important as the ability to recall
Causes of forgettingLack of attention (sensory register to STM). Did not do required rehearsal (STM to LTM). Lack of proper cues
Definition of ForgettingLoss, permanent or temporary, of ability to recall or recognize something learnt earlier
Kinds of ForgettingNormal and Abnormal
Normal Forgetting
Decay theory.
Interference - retroactive, proactive. Accident.
Emotional Shocks.
State dependent memory
Abnormal ForgettingAlzheimer’s, Motivated, Amnesia - retrograde, anterograde, Psychological Amnesia. Drugs, Alcohol, Toxic effects
Decay TheoryTend to forget with passage of time. Info entering LTM forms traces with constant use; more the use stronger the trace and remembrance. When not used, fades.
InterferenceRetroactive and Proactive
Retroactive InterferenceNew learning interferes with info already present. Eg -
Proactive InterferencePreviously learnt information interferes with present learning
AccidentTemp disturbances in blood can cause forgetting. Certain drugs, illnesses, fall from height, blow to the head, concussion
Emotional Shockssudden shock eg sudden death can result in diff with retrieval of anxiety inducing information
State Dependent memoryEncode in one emotional state and try to recall in another
Alzheimer’sSevere memory loss. Result of disconnection of brain cells, begins with loss of STM. Names, faces, dates.
Motivated ForgettingBlock from consciousness memories that are too painful to live. Repression. To deal with guilt, shame, shock. Sigmund Freud
AmnesiaRetrograde - Memories before a particular event is lost. May regain in some days or years, may not regain at all. Anterograde - Inability to make new memories after injury / incident
Psychological AmnesiaChildhood amnesia. Brain areas involving formation and storage are not developed. Stored in non-verbal form. Absence of cues
Drugs, Alcohol, Toxic EffectsAddiction, prescription drugs, etc.
POWER LearningPrepare. Organize. Work. Evaluate. Rethink