relatively durable / lasting change in behaviour that is not the result of maturation, acquiring of new knowledge, skills brought about by experience


  1. Needs
  2. State
  3. Preferred Learning Styles

Theories of Learning:

(a) Classical Conditioning

  • Ivan Pavlov, Russian Physiologist
  • Type of conditioning where a neutral (conditioned) stimulus replaces the natural (unconditioned) stimulus, i.e., the conditioned stimulus elicits the same response as the natural stimulus. unconditioned response → conditioned response
  • Bell ringing experiment, saliva, measured

Factors -

a. Extinction b. Spontaneous Recovery c. Stimulus Generalization d. Stimulus Discrimination e. Higher Order Conditioning

Watson → Little Albert; toy, sound, induce fear

(b) Operant Conditioning

  • BF Skinner

  • Increases chances of particular behaviour by reinforcement

  • voluntary

  • Skinner Box

Types of Reinforcement - a. Positive - adding stimuli causes rate ^ b. Negative - removing stimuli causes the rate ^ c. Primary - Natural, aids survival d. Secondary - Learnt/reinforced

Schedules of reinforcement a. Continuous - reinforced every time b. Partial - not every time

Partial reinforcement is of 4 types →

  1. Fixed-interval schedules: Reinforcing after a specific period of time
  2. Fixed-ratio schedules: Reinforcing after a specific number of responses
  3. Variable-interval schedules: Reinforcing after an unpredictable period of time
  4. Variable-ratio schedules: Reinforcing after an unpredictable number of responses


  • DECREASE chances of behaviour Positive Punishment Negative Punishment

==classical conditioning depends on developing associations whereas operant conditioning depends on consequences==

Law of Effect

Edward Thorndike Cats any behavior that is followed by pleasant consequences = increase behaviour will stop when consequences stop

(c) Insight Learning

  • A ha! moment
  • perceptual reorganization after few trials
  • sudden realization of solution

(d) Observational/Social Learning

Bandura’s Bobo Doll experiment We observe and learn from others’ experience not just ours



Memory = encode, store and retrieve info to organize and store information, ready for retrieval when needed

Memory Process

Encode → Storage → Retrieval

Memory Models:

Atkinson and Shiffrin Model,

Neural Network Models

Types of Memory –


STM /Working

Long Term

graph TB
a(Long Term Memory) --> b(Implicit)
a --> c(Explicit)
b -->d(aka Procedural Memory. <br> Does not need conscious recollection)
c -->e(aka Declarative Memory.<br> Needs conscious recollection. Biographic memory)-->e1(Episodic or autobiographical)
e-->e2(Semantic or factual)


  • Maintenance Rehearsal / Rote Learning
  • Elaborative Rehearsal → Meaningful; remember for longer

Memory Enhancing Strategies

  • Mnemonics
  • Chunking
  • Rehearsal


Defn - Forgetting is the loss or change in information that was previously stored in short-term or long-term memory. It can occur suddenly or it can occur gradually

Reasons for Forgetting /Theories of Forgetting:

Trace Decay Theory,

memory trace = neural pathway; strengthens with use, fades with disuse | Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve

Encoding Failure Theory

wasn’t encoded properly, fault in first stage

Displacement Theory

loss in short term memory; when new info comes in old is lost

Retrieval-failure Theory,

tip of the tongue effect, memory is there but diff w recall due to lack of retrieval cues.

Retrieval Cues -

  - state-dependent
  - context-dependent
  - semantic

Interference Theory.

  1. proactive - new memories are prevented by old memories e.g. writing old year instead of current year
  2. retroactive - old memories are altered by new ones e.g. Learning a new language and using that with old language
graph TB
subgraph LR
direction LR
a[sensory register]-->b[STM]--Rehearsal-->c[LTM]
b--rehearsal loop-->b
subgraph TB
	direction TB

see also: Learning and Memory Flashcards zettelkasten