Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of genetic material from parent to offspring

The study of heredity in biology is called genetics

offsprings inherit traits from parents

Gregor Johann Mendel is the father of Genetics


Deoxyribonucleic Acid

genetic code synthesis of protein - blueprint double helix

made up of four bases ATGC Adenine Cytosine Guanine Thymine

Gene - A section of DNA that encodes for a certain trait; unit of heredity

Chromosome - made up of genes

Mitosis Meiosis

karyotype - picture of the full set of chromosomes in a person’s cells genotype - sum of all genes phenotype - EXPRESSED; not all genes are expressed. Some need environmental triggers etc

DNA → Genes → Chromosomes → Nucleus of a cell

Allele - Alternate gene

22 autosomes 23rd - sex chromosome each cell has 46 chromosomes except for sex cells

Genetic Disorders

happen due to mutation which is a rapid change

  1. Down Syndrome

Trisomy 21

  1. XXY / Klinefelter
  2. XO / Turner
  3. Fragile X
  4. XXY / Jacobs

Sex linked

Hemophilia Colour blindness

Testing for Genetic Disorders

  • Carrier testing: This blood test shows whether you or your partner carry a mutation linked to genetic disorders. This is recommended for everyone considering pregnancy, even if there is no family history.
  • Prenatal screening: This testing usually involves blood testing from a pregnant person that tells them how likely it is that a fetus could have a common chromosome condition.
  • Prenatal diagnostic testing: You can find out whether the developing fetus faces a higher risk for certain genetic disorders. Prenatal testing uses a sample of fluid from your uterus - amniocentesis
  • Newborn screening: This test uses a sample of your newborn baby’s blood and is performed on all babies born in Ohio. Detecting genetic disorders early in life can help your child receive timely care if needed
  • villus sampling