PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) is a mental health problem that some people develop after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event, like combat, a natural disaster, a car accident, or sexual assault.

DSM V Symptoms for PTSD -

divided into four:

  1. Intrusion
  2. Avoidance
  3. Negative changes
  4. changes in arousal

re-experiencing, avoidance, negative alterations in cognition and mood, and arousal

1) Intrusion

  • Reoccurring, involuntary, and intrusive upsetting memories of the event
  • Repeated upsetting dreams related to the event
  • Dissociation
  • Strong and persistent distress to cues connected to the event that are either inside or outside of the body
  • Strong bodily reactions (for example, increased heart rate) when reminded of the event

2) Avoidance

may avoid people, places, conversations, activities, objects, or situations that bring up memories of the event. also might avoid thoughts, feelings, or physical sensations that recall the event.

3) Negative Changes

in thoughts and mood negative self talk self-blame loss of interest feeling detached

4) Changes in Arousal

hyper arousal; being “on guard”, hypervigilance heightened startle response irritability problems w sleep concentration problems



to a traumatic event can be direct or indirect

1 Or More Intrusion Symptom

1 Or More Avoidance Symptom

2 Or More Changes in Negative Feelings

2 Or More Changes in Arousal or Reactivity

these must last longer than a month should bring considerable distress in various areas of life must not be due to medicines/substances


CBT CPT Exposure Therapy Group Therapy EMDR

related: childhood trauma, trauma, panic attacks, shellshock syndrome, cptsd, depression, anxiety