dispersion or scattering of a group of people with a common origin or cultural background

can happen due to migration, exile, or forced migration

members are displaced from their roots; they share a common identity that binds them together

usually have a homeland


mainly referred to the dispersion of Jews from their original homeland

now it includes → immigrant, refugees, expellees, migrants, guest workers, ethnic and racial minorities and overseas communities


The characteristics of a diaspora typically include: Migration or Displacement: Movement from a country of origin, which may be voluntary or forced, in search of work, or to escape conflict or persecution. Collective Memory: An idealized, shared memory or myth about the ancestral home. Connection to Homeland: A continuing relationship with the country of origin, even after settling in new places. Preservation of Culture: People in a diaspora often maintain and celebrate the culture and traditions of their homeland. Adaptation and Change: While preserving some aspects of their original culture, diasporic communities also adapt to and incorporate elements of their new environments. Sense of Community: Despite being scattered, there is often a strong sense of community and shared identity among members of a diaspora.

Types of Diaspora

according to Michael Bruneau

entrepreneurial diasporas

(e.g Chinese, Lebanese) people who disperse in effort to gain better economic opportunities

religious diasporas

(eg. Jews, Greeks)

political diasporas

(eg. Palestinians, Tibetan)

According to Robin Cohen - Five Typologies

1. Labour

mass migration in search of work and economic opportunities such as the Indian diaspora

2. Imperial

eg British

3. Trade

Travel to set up businesses and shops, create networks of trade Entrepreneurial eg. Chinese diaspora in South East Asia

4. De-territorialized diaspora

Includes groups such as Caribbean, Sindh, Parsis, and Muslims, who are spread across the globe and often lack a ‘territory’ or homeland

5. Victim

includes groups like Jews and Palestinians, who have been historically forced to disperse due to persecution or conflict


types vs typologies; is there a difference?