Mood dysregulation disorder, also known as Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD), is characterized by severe and recurrent temper outbursts that are disproportionate to the situation and inconsistent with the child’s developmental level. These outbursts can be verbal or behavioral and occur three or more times a week. The individual also experiences a persistently irritable or angry mood most of the day, nearly every day, and the symptoms must be present for at least 12 months in at least two settings (e.g., at home and at school). The condition is typically diagnosed in children and adolescents between the ages of 6 and 18.

Obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors are two key components of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Obsessions are unwanted, intrusive thoughts, images, or urges that trigger intensely distressing feelings. Compulsions are behaviors an individual engages in to attempt to get rid of the obsessions and/or decrease their distress. For example, someone might be obsessed with germs or contamination and therefore compulsively wash their hands to reduce the anxiety associated with these obsessions.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Dysthymia, now called Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD), are both mood disorders but differ in their severity and duration. MDD is characterized by a discrete episode of severe depression lasting for at least two weeks, whereas PDD involves a chronic state of depression that lasts for at least two years with fewer symptoms. Individuals with PDD may experience less severe symptoms but endure them for a longer period, which can disrupt life more significantly than MDD.

Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder that presents with a range of symptoms categorized as positive or negative. Positive symptoms include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, and abnormal motor behavior, which indicate an excess or distortion of normal functions. Negative symptoms are characterized by a decrease in normal functions, such as diminished emotional expression, lack of motivation, and withdrawal from social interactions.

Delusional Disorder is typified by the presence of one or more delusions for a month or longer. Types of delusions include erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, persecutory, somatic, and mixed. For instance, an individual with grandiose delusions may believe they have exceptional abilities or have made a significant discovery.

Trichotillomania, commonly known as hair-pulling disorder, is characterized by repeated pulling out of one’s hair, leading to hair loss and distress. This condition may be associated with varying degrees of emotional distress, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Treatment often involves a combination of therapy and medication, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and antidepressants.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic disorder where a person has uncontrollable, reoccurring thoughts (obsessions) and behaviors (compulsions) that they feel the urge to repeat over and over. The condition can significantly impact daily living and may require a combination of medication and psychotherapy for management.

Dermatillomania, also known as skin picking disorder or excoriation disorder, is a condition where individuals compulsively pick at their skin, which can lead to scarring, infections, and significant distress. It is often treated with a combination of medication and therapy, with cognitive-behavioral therapy being a common therapeutic approach.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a mental illness where an individual is preoccupied with an imagined physical defect or a minor defect that others often cannot see. This disorder can cause significant anxiety and may overlap with OCD in terms of compulsive behaviors related to the perceived physical flaw. Treatment typically involves a combination of cognitive-behavioral therapy and medication, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

In summary, these disorders are complex and multifaceted, often requiring a comprehensive treatment approach that includes both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. It is crucial for individuals experiencing symptoms of these disorders to seek professional help for diagnosis and treatment planning.

  • Intellectual Developmental Disorder: A group of conditions present from birth affecting physical, intellectual, and/or emotional development.
  • Autism: A developmental disorder affecting communication and behavior, often noticeable in early childhood.
  • ADHD: A neurobehavioral disorder characterized by difficulty in paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
  • Tic Disorders: Neuropsychiatric disorders with onset in childhood, marked by sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic movements or vocalizations.
  • Bipolar 1: A disorder causing manic episodes lasting at least one week, possibly with periods of depression.
  • Bipolar 2: Involves patterns of depressive episodes and hypomanic episodes, but not full-blown mania.
  • Cyclothymia: A mood disorder with emotional ups and downs, but less extreme than bipolar disorder.
  • GAD: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, excessive worry about everyday things, causing significant distress.
  • Social Anxiety Disorder: Chronic fear of social or performance situations due to fear of scrutiny or negative evaluation.
  • Separation Anxiety Disorder: Excessive fear of being separated from attachment figures, seen in children and adults.
  • Specific Phobia: An intense, irrational fear of specific objects or situations that poses little or no actual danger.
  • Agoraphobia: Fear of places or situations where escape might be difficult, leading to avoidance behaviors.
  • PMDD: Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, severe emotional and physical problems linked to the menstrual cycle.
  • DMDD: Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, chronic, severe irritability in children with frequent temper outbursts.