social cohesion gemeinschaft and gesselschaft

in group and out group

laws mores

community group and types


stream of consciousness, bechdel test, Eliza the chatbot, cognitive bias, sexy lamp theory, Heinz Dilemma, Lawrence Kohlberg, Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, Carl Rogers, Marcia’s Identity States, Bowlby’s Theory, Six Degrees of Bacon, various schools of psychology, key figures in Psychology

group does not have a goal; no membership needed?

Stream of consciousness is a literary technique that tries to capture the natural flow of a character’s thoughts, feelings, and impressions in a continuous and uninterrupted way.

One of the criteria used to evaluate the representation of women in fiction is the Bechdel test, which asks whether a work features at least two named women who talk to each other about something other than a man.

Eliza was one of the first chatbots, created by Joseph Weizenbaum in 1966, that simulated a conversation with a psychotherapist by using pattern matching and substitution.

Cognitive bias is a systematic error in thinking that affects the judgments and decisions that people make.

Sexy lamp theory is a variation of the Bechdel test that asks whether a female character could be replaced by a sexy lamp without affecting the plot.

The Heinz dilemma is a hypothetical moral dilemma used by Lawrence Kohlberg to assess the stage of moral development in children and adults.

Marcia’s identity states are four possible outcomes of identity formation in adolescence, based on the presence or absence of exploration and commitment. They are: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, identity moratorium, and identity achievement.

Bowlby’s theory is an attachment theory that suggests that humans have an innate need to form strong emotional bonds with others, especially caregivers, and that early experiences of attachment have lasting effects on social and emotional development.

Six Degrees

Six degrees of Bacon is a trivia game based on the idea that any two actors can be linked through their film roles in six steps or less, using Kevin Bacon as an example. See also - Small World Experiment by Milgram

Various schools of psychology are different perspectives or approaches to understanding human behavior and mental processes. Some of the major schools of psychology are: structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, psychoanalysis, humanism, cognitive psychology, biological psychology, evolutionary psychology, and social-cultural psychology.

Key figures in psychology are influential thinkers who have contributed to the development of the discipline through their theories, research, or applications. Some examples of key figures in psychology are: Wilhelm Wundt, William James, Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Jean Piaget, Albert Bandura, Abraham Maslow, Noam Chomsky, Elizabeth Loftus, Carol Dweck, Daniel Kahneman, and Philip Zimbardo.

  • Richard Stallman: He is an activist and programmer who started the free software movement and the GNU Project, which aims to create a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. He also developed the GNU Compiler Collection, GNU Emacs, and the GNU General Public License, which is the most widely used free software license.
  • Aaron Swartz: He was a prodigy and a hacker who co-founded Reddit, helped create RSS, and advocated for open access to information and social justice. He also downloaded millions of academic articles from JSTOR, which led to his prosecution and suicide.
  • Brewster Kahle: He is the founder of the Internet Archive, a non-profit digital library that preserves billions of web pages, books, audio recordings, videos, and software. He also created the Wayback Machine, which allows users to browse archived versions of websites.
  • Steve Jobs: He was the co-founder and CEO of Apple, one of the most influential companies in the world. He was involved in the creation of products such as the Macintosh, iPod, iPhone, iPad, and iTunes. He was also a pioneer of the personal computer revolution and a visionary leader.
  • Bill Gates: He is the co-founder and former CEO of Microsoft, the world’s largest software company. He is also one of the richest people in the world and a philanthropist who supports causes such as global health, education, and climate change.
  • Steve Wozniak: He is the co-founder of Apple and the inventor of the Apple I and Apple II computers, which were among the first successful personal computers. He is also a hacker, a prankster, and a lifelong learner.
  • Dan Bricklin: He is the co-inventor of VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet program for personal computers. He is also an entrepreneur, a software developer, and a lecturer.
  • Douglas Adams: He was a writer and humorist who wrote The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, a science fiction comedy series that has influenced many people and works in pop culture. He was also an advocate for environmentalism and digital technology.
  • Mary Ainsworth: She was a psychologist who developed the Strange Situation procedure, which is used to measure attachment between infants and caregivers. She also contributed to the theory of attachment styles and their effects on human relationships.
  • Alan Turing: He was a mathematician and a computer scientist who is considered to be one of the fathers of artificial intelligence. He also cracked the Enigma code during World War II, which helped the Allies win the war. He was persecuted for his homosexuality and died by suicide.
  • Ada Lovelace: She was a mathematician and a writer who is regarded as the first computer programmer. She wrote an algorithm for Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine, which was a mechanical computer that was never built. She also foresaw the potential of computers to go beyond calculations.
  • Linus Torvalds: He is a software engineer and the creator of Linux, a free and open source operating system kernel that powers millions of devices around the world. He also developed Git, a distributed version control system that is widely used by programmers.
  • Charles Babbage: He was a mathematician and an inventor who designed the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine, which were mechanical computers that were never completed. He is considered to be one of the fathers of computing.
  • Johannes Gutenberg: He was a printer and an inventor who introduced movable type printing to Europe, which revolutionized communication and culture. He is best known for printing the Gutenberg Bible, one of the first mass-produced books.
  • Dennis Ritchie: He was a computer scientist and a programmer who created C, one of the most influential programming languages in history. He also co-developed Unix, a powerful and versatile operating system that has inspired many other systems.

Utitlitarianism, Why Majority is not Always Good, Democracy, Etc

|Age of Enlightenment |Albert Camus |Modernist| |negative senescence

Social Construction of Gender

Kessler and McKenna’s work was influenced by Harold Garfinkel in ethnomethodology (especially his analysis of Agnes in Studies in Ethnomethodology); Stanley Milgram, their social psychology professor; and the sociologist Peter McHugh, McKenna’s professor. Kessler and McKenna were the first to argue that the distinction between “gender” and “sex” is a socially constructed one and the latter (defined by biological markers) should not be privileged.

Their articulation of what later became known as the social construction of gender was part of the foundation for works of ultimately more well-known gender theorists, Judith Butler (1990), [Anne Fausto-Sterling] (1992), and Kate Bornstein (1994). Kessler and McKenna’s concept of “gender attribution” predated William Zimmerman and Candace West’s concept of doing gender and Butler’s concept of gender performativity.

HARKing Texas Sharpshooter Fallacy Multiple comparisons problem