are beliefs about social groups in terms of the traits or characteristics that they are believed to share. Stereotypes are cognitive frameworks that influence the processing of social information.

How they occur

  • Illusory Correlation erroneous belief about a connection between events, characteristics or categories that are not related at all.
  • Out-group homogeneity effect Belief that all members of the out-group are the same
  • Self fulfilling prophecy

Why they persist reinforcement confirmation bias norm automatic processes perpetuate stereotypes

Ways to reduce stereotypes:

  1. Direct inter-group contact: Stephan (1985) proposed the contact hypothesis wherein the two group members could get better acquainted with the other and realize that they are similar to each other than was thought to be.
  2. Recategorization reducing us vs them notion
  3. Mindful Thinking people are ‘cognitive misers’ in terms of processing information. rely more on deliberate thinking, central route thinking

Other ways: Contact and cooperation Feelings and Affect (asking them to empathize) recategorization, decategorization, cross-categorization