• God is the one infinite substance that exists. According to Spinoza, everything that exists is in God, and nothing can be conceived without God. He challenged the traditional view of God as a transcendent creator, proposing instead that God is identical to the natural world.
  • Spinoza’s God is not a personal deity who intervenes in the universe; rather, is the universe itself, with all its laws and entities being expressions of God’s nature. aligns with the philosophical doctrine of pantheism, which sees God and the universe as one and the same.
  • His work laid the groundwork for modern biblical criticism and influenced later thinkers, including Albert Einstein, who expressed admiration for Spinoza’s conception of God.

    ”I believe in Spinoza’s God who reveals himself in the orderly harmony of what exists, not in a God who concerns himself with the fates and actions of human beings.”

    • Einstein