Marriageimportant and universal social institution that governs sexual relationships
Marriage according to Robert H Lowiepermanent bond between permissible mates
Aim of marriageprocreational, companionship, psychological support
Aim of marriage
used to be social obligation. Now for companionship too. Familial, social, economic responsibilities.Differing functions. Different customs and modes
Characteristics of Marriagei) more or less universal (ii) Relationship bw man and woman (iii) relatively durable (iv) requires social approval (v) Associated with civil / ceremonial ceremony (vi) creates mutual obligations
Marriage is more or less UNIVERSAL- both literate and illiterate; even in primitive communities. Social rule is some societies. Examples - Japan, Korea, India, Todas of Nilgiris, Confucius, Levi Strauss
Marriage is between a MAN AND A WOMANunion. one or more men to one or more women. Social rules differ.
Marriage is REL DURABLElong lasting between hus and wife. Not only sexual. Continues after sex is obtained. Other sexual activities such as prostitutes does not count as marriage. In Hinduism, marriage = sacred
Marriage is CIVIL and CEREMONIALlegal contract after social approval
Marriage requires SOCIAL APPROVAL- social recognition through some ceremony, own rites and rituals, formalities; should be public and solemn. Considered sacred by some. Hindu - Homa, Kanyadhana, Mangalya dharana, sapta padi.
Marriage creates MUTUAL OBLIGATIONS- imposes certain rights and duties on both husband and wife. Both are reqd to support each other + children.
Functions of Marriagei) Regulates sex life. (ii) Regulates sexual relations (iii) Establishment of family (iv) Economic co-operation (v) intellectual and emotional stimulation (vi) social solidarity
Marriage regulates sex liferegulates sexual activities. Controls it. Often called license for sex
Marriage regulates sexual relationsNo incest because it is taboo. Restrictions on premartial and extramarital sex
Marriage leads to establishment of familyChildren are born and brought up. Work as one unit. Inheritance, succession
Marriage promotes economic co-operationDivision of labour. Share work load. Some societies - clear cut diff in work
Marriage provides intellectual and emotional inter-stimulationMoral support, emotional support, co-operation, love and affection towards each other and other
Marriage aims at social solidarityBrings two people together; two families, kin, religions, castes, communities. therefore increasing these type of marriages (diff communities) helps reduce differences and brings solidarity
Types of marriagesMonogamy, Polygamy
MonogamyAt one time only one wife/husband. Most common, almost universal. Can marry again after death / divorce. Serial monogamy
Polygamymore than one mate at one time. Polygyny (one husband, many wives) or polyandry (one wife, many husbands)
Sororal PolygynyMan marries wife’s sisters
Non-sororal PolygynyMan marries multiple women, not sisters of one woman
Fraternal PolyandryA group of brothers (Levirate) marry a single woman. Eg Tibet
Non-fraternal polyandrySpend time with husbands not related to each other. Wife-lending or wife-sharing. Tribes in South India, Todas, Jats
Where economic conditions are harsh because one single man cannot raise family. Also, limit population
FamilyFamily is an institution that consists of a husband and a wife with or without children. Biological and social unit. Primary kinship unit
FamulusRoot word of Family, Latin for servant. Roman law - producers, slaves and servants connected by common descent or marriage
Family according Ogburn and NimkoffGroup united by ties of marriage with or without children
Characteristics of Familyi) Universal (ii) Biological Basis (iii) Limited Size (iv) Common residence, nomenclature, fulfillment of basic needs
Family is Universal
Family has a Biological Basis
Family has a Limited SizePrimary group. Parents and their unmarried children / parents and their children. Bonds that tie these together are EMOTIONAL FACTORS. Love, mutual affection. Emotional basis of family makes it ideal primary social group
Common residence, nomenclature, fulfillment of basic needsEach family has residence, address and a name. A family can mean two things - Family of Orientation (where one is a child) and Family of Procreation (where one is a parent). Habitation. Family can be spread out geographically, but is still emotionally, socially, and legally. Example. Socialization takes place
Functions of FamilyPrimary Functions :- i) Reproduction and physical protection ii)Regulation of sexual behaviour (iii) Socialization of child and younger generation (iv) Status transmission (v) emotional support (vi) fulfillment function Secondary Functions :- i) Economic ii) educational (iii) religious (iv)recreational (v)inter-institutional linkage
Reproduction and physical protection (Function of family)Old die, newer members to replace. Child rearing, their needs - clothes, shelter, etc
Regulation of sexual behaviour
(Function of family)
Influenced by the family setting. Social norms.
Socialization of child and younger generation (Function of family)Teaches them social norms, to conform. Vehicle of culture. Prepares for participation in the larger world.
Status Transmission (Function of family)Social identity is initially fixed by family membership. Inherit the status. Socio-economic class, culture of the class; value, behaviour and patterns. Extensions of social identity of parents. Vehicle of culture transmission
Emotional Support (Function of family)Primary group, affection, love, caring. Social INTERDEPENDENCY. Gratify psychological and emotional needs
Fulfillment function (Function of family)Most important primary group. Safety, protection, warmth, comfort. Defense against isolation. Health agency for young, old, and sick. Responsible for health of members
Economic (Function of family)Unit of prod and consumption. Modern families earn income. So they function as consumers of goods and services
Provision of economic support is imp
Educational (function of family)Formal schools, learn at home. Basics, mother tongue at home. Traditional families were associated with vocational education, because families were assoc. with particular tasks
Religious (function of family)Religious virtues. Rituals, traditions, customs.
Recreational (function of family)Feasting, gathering, marriage, festivals. enhances happiness. School of civil virtues. Cradle of civil virtues. Formation of personality
inter-institutional linkage (function of family)Other institutions and organization - relationship. Opportunity to participate in these. Prepares and gives opportunities to have Social roles and status
Types of familyNuclear and Joint families
Nuclear FamilyHusband + Wife (wives) + children. Children leave parental households after marriage. Autonomous unit, free from the control of elders. Physical distance bw parent and married child; parent and grandparent minimizes the interdepency
Joint FamilyCollection of several nuclear families. Several generations. Example. Might be in one house or many houses in one compound. Man, wife, his children, their grandchildren and so on
ReligionBody of beliefs, set of practices, moral prescriptions. Individual and group phenomenon. Helps shape life and is an important in socialization
Definition of ReligionJames G Frazer - “Belief in a power superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and human life”
Elements of Religion(i) Supernatural and sacred (ii) Beliefs and practices (iii) Moral prescription (iv) Method of salvation
Supernatural / Sacred (Elements of Religion)Center of every religion. Beyond physical understanding. Infinite, omnipotent, extraordinary. Accd to EB Tyler belief in supernatural beings = religion. Beliefs in other kind of beings, magical forces, angels, souls of dead ancestors. Believers may arrange them in hierarchy according to their power or according to function. Durkheim believed there was distinction between sacred and profane. Sacred refers to that which is set apart and forbidden from the profane. Some rituals exist which are a communication between the sacred and the profane. We must purify ourselves if we want to approach the sacred.
Beliefs and Practices (Elements of Religion)Beliefs are a system of knownledge about the rel bw the divine and human. Beliefs - to explain the existence of divine to people and future generations. Reveals existence of divine. Explains nature of divine. Deeds, actions, words of divine. Prescribes how humans can communicate with divine. Past. History of communication. Gives meaning to ritual. Ritual = act performed repeatedly, accd customs. Ceremonial and formal. Rituals have specific purposes usually. Symbolic actions. Specific meaning. Standardized.
Moral Prescriptions (Elements of Religion)Imparts moral values. Without moral values = no religion. Right and wrong more powerfully than other social institutions.
Methods of Salvation (Elements of Religion)Moksha, nirvana, salvation. Christ the Redeemer
gave his life for our sins
Functions of ReligionSocial Solidarity, Social Control, Social Change
Social solidarity (as a function of religion) 6a) Emile Durkheim “unified system of beliefs and practice related to sacred things” What makes things sacred = attitude, emotion, sentiment, a feeling that certain things are apart from ordinary matters of life. (b) Social obligations become religious duties when moral values are defined as sacred. It subordinates individual private ends, acts as a unifying force. Creates, maintains, reinforces social solidarity. (c) Group solidarity - social solidarity in a group. common values, beliefs, prayers. Shared state of mind. (d) helps deal with crises of life. Malinowski. Birth, puberty, death, accidents, natural disasters, etc. Important for maintenance of social system. (e) Justifies and supports social standards and socially accepted behaviour. Encourage conformity. Religious books, examples. (f) Rewards for good and punishment for bad conduct - group values, norms, justifying group ends
Social control (as a function of religion) 4a) Rewards good, punishes bad. (b) Interprets misfortunes as manifestation of the supernatural order itself. Sanctifies certain basic elements of social order and social order itself. Preaches submission to existing social conditions and fate. (c) Marx - illusion, hallucinatory drug attempting to justify existing arrangement in society and encourage people to accept them (d) Poor are encouraged to refrain from the pursuit of personal happiness for future reward in heaven, discourage resisting opression and injustice.
Social change (as a function of religion) 3a) Can contribute to social change. Eg. Calvinism. saw hard work as a moral duty and a virtue. Influenced growth of new social order, capitalism. (b) Black churches contributed to Civil rights movements in 1950s and 1960s in US. Religious reform movements - National Awakening - in India (Late 18th and early 19th) changed old social and cultural fabric (c) Religion provides moral prescription
EducationImpart knowledge, develop habits and attitudes which help them survive in the future
Root word of educationLatin word Educare - to bring up or to rear
Definition of EducationConscious training of young for later adoption of adult roles. By modern convention, education is formal training by specialists within formal org of school
Functions of educationi) Preservative ii) Allocative iii) Reformatory
Preservative function of educationTransmission of culture and preservation of social order. Hands down values from generation to gen. When values and skills becomes absolute, replacing them is also a major func. Growth of economy → complexity of socio-economic structure, educational system has also grown specialization. Trains with info, knowledge, skills and values for fulfilling various roles and jobs at various levels. Therefore economy is influenced by education.
Allocative function of educationDifferent specializations, levels, certification process allocates the younger generation to various roles in society. Induces greater demand of education and causes it to expand and increase the common people’s dependence on it. Universal goals of edu articulate the thinking of philosophers and social reformers of the times. For eg Gandhi’s influence on education. But in practice, both goals and objectivities are largely influenced by the dominant politico-economic structure and powerful groups
Reformatory function of educationPotential to make the people question the ruling values and norms in society, to make them rebel against the existing social constraints and solutions to contradictions and constraints outside the framework of the established system . This we call the transformative, progressive or reformative function of the education. Though it is generally conformatory, it is potential of rebelious character. They may germinate, support and lead to the rise of movements of social liberation
Types of EducationFormal and Informal
Informal EducationFamily first school and mother first teacher. Moulds human nature and personality. Peer groups
Formal EducationConscious, deliberate, designed. Planned pursuit. Follows curriculum, strict and official. Syllabi, timetables, official structure, laws, discipline, hierarchy of teachers and class grades, exam system all reflect formal design. Formalized since three centuries due to change in pol, eco, socio