Social ChangeAll social phenomena exhibit change over a period of time. This is known as social change
It is the change in social life, activities, changes in social structure and functions
Kingsley Davis’ defn of Social ChangeSocial change is the alterations that occur in social ORGANISATION, i.e structure and functions of society
Characteristics of Social ChangeUniversal, Community (change in), Continuous, chain-rel, complex, Varies, Inevitable, sync, no judgement, planned or unplanned
Characteristics of Social Change mnemonicPlan to use C4 on Universe might Vary but is Inevitable so don’t Judge, Sink that thought
evolutiongradual development / gradual unfolding
Social evolutionchange in human relationships, gradual. Stone age simple group tribe complex urban life. Simple complex society
Principles of Social Evolution1)Explained thru cultural or human aspects. Law of cosmic evo 2) Same way as cosmic evo 3)Gradual 4)Progressive, not irreversible
Defn of Social Evolution by Herbert SpencerSocial Evolution is change from indefinite abstract state and determined state
Characteristics of Evolution1) Gradual 2)Progressive 3)Systematic process 4)Differentiation 5)Integration 6) homegenous to heterogenous
Progress root wordsprograder and progressus; an advance; Latin
ProgressForward movement, towards destination or goal. Desired change.
Progress accd to LumleyProgress is change in desired or proved direction, not any direction
Characteristics of Social Progress1) Change in desired direction 2) Collective in nature 3) Shared 4) Voluntary 5) Cannot be measured 6) Variable
Two types of development1) Distinction bw two types of society; industrial and rural 2)refers to the process by which rural and agri societies are being industrialized
Char of social development1) Change that is observable at present time 2) Economic changes that can be identified and measured
Development is closely associated with ______ and ______science and technology
Factors of social changeINTRINSIC (eg geographical change, bio change) or EXTRINSIC (technological, cultural) . Some sociologists believe one factor leads to change others believe multiple
Natural Factors / Geographical FactorsBrought about by nature and environment. Change in env change in society. Land, water, hills, forests. Natural resources. Wildlife. Climate. Disasters. society more complex = more loss of nat factors. More people on river banks than deserts. Jobs.
Biological Factorsi) non-human ii) human
human biological factorsSize of pop. Structure of Pop. Heredity. Race. Birth Rate. Death Rate. Fertility. Sex Ratio
Size of populationPeople are assets. size of pop should be balanced. more pop = poverty. Optimum pop = balance bw pop and prod of food. Variation leads to change. Variation in sex ratio leads to change. Polyandry and polygyny
Birth and Death rateHigh birth, low death = high pop = poverty, unemployment, etc Low birth, high death = scarcity of human resources, dec in efficiency. Family planning - change in social values, thoughts, matrimonal relationships
MigrationMovement of pop from one area to another. Urban-rural migration and rural-urban migration. Second time - more in India led to dense pop, housing problems, unemployment, problems in agri sector. Also brings change in attitude, beliefs, lifestyles, values. Eg - changes in trad joint families
Age and Sex RatioChild, youth and old. Demographic changes influence
Cultural factors affecting social changeChange in culture leads to change in society. three types :- Discovery, Invention, Diffusion
Scientific FactorsTransport and Communication; Agri; Growth of classes
Resistance to change
Causes for resistanceInadequacy of inv, fear, ignorance, habit, vested int, economic ineq, lack of int app, tech diff in implementation, intellectual laziness, desire for stability
causes for resistance mnemonicstab 7 eyes out of habit, not fear