the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information to represent and understand the environment.

Sensation: the process by which our sense organs
receive information from the environment.

we gain information about the properties and elements of the environment helps us navigate and understand the world around us helps us interact w environment helps us survive

Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experience of them

Senses - (five senses) proprioception social cues

Absolute threshold: the smallest intensity of
the stimulus that must be present for it to be

Difference threshold: the smallest level of
stimulation required to sense that a change has

Just noticeable difference: The minimum
stimulation required to detect the difference
between the two stimuli.

Adaptation: An adjustment in sensory capacity
following prolonged exposure to stimuli.

top-down processing Perception that is guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations

bottom-up processing Perception that consists of the progression of recognizing and processing information from individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the whole.

Gestalt Laws of Perceptual Organisation

Gestalt School ‘the whole is something else than the sum of its parts’ Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler 20th Century

Gestalt is used in modern German to mean the way a thing has been “placed,” or “put together

CCP and SS are authoritarian Figures - Principles of Gestalt

Continuity Closure Proximity Similarity Symmetry Figure and Ground


a misrepresentation of a “real” sensory stimulus an interpretation that contradicts objective “reality” as defined by general agreement universal unlike hallucinations real stimuli, wrong interpretation

Monocular and Binocular Cues

flowchart TD

Depth[Depth Perception] ---> a[monocular] & b[binocular]


n[the visual ability to perceive <br> world in 3D <br> ability to gauge <br> how far an object is ]


a --- d[one eye] --- f[bad at depth]

b --- e[two eyes] --- h[diff angles helps]


n --- m[relies on the convergence <br>  of both eyes upon a <br> single object]

m --- x[navigating, determing dist, <br> avoiding, etc]

lateral displacement of the eyes that provides
two slightly different views of the same object allowing STEREOPSIS / two images which helps us discern depth better

Mono CuesBino Cues
Relative Size
size constancy - smaller = far
Retinal Disparity
Overlapping objects, object that overlaps = closer
Binocular Convergence
Linear Perspective
converging of parallel lines
scattering of blue light; far hill appears blue
closer hill more contrast
Light and Shade
Highlights and shadows help us understand dimensions
of object, where light is coming from, etc
Ponzo Illusion

Perceptual constancy refers to the tendency to perceive an object you
are familiar with as having a constant shape, size, and brightness e.g. - moon illusion

Size Const. Shape Const. Colour Const.

Real and Apparent motion

Apparent Motion -

  • Phi Phenomena - bulbs in row, flashing, feels like moving • Motion after effect (MAE)
    • Induced motion - train moving next to you, you feel like you are moving • Autokinetic movement - dark room, singular light, feels like moving