Online Communities



  1. Shared Interests
  2. Communication Channels
  3. Community Culture
  4. Impacts
    1. Learning
    2. Social Connection
    3. Marketing

User Generated Content

Key Features

  • authentic
  • diversity
  • accessible
  • viral potential


  • influencing purchases
  • community building

Web 2.0

  • User participation
  • online platform for activism
  • accessible
  • two-way communication, participatory communication
  • user generated content
  • users shape the community
  • awareness

Networked Journalism

focuses on collaboration of journalists and other actors including people not engaged in a journalistic profession collaboration in the digital era

Alternative Journalism / Independent Journalism / Grassroots Journalism

NOT mainstream focuses on underrepresented issues


Media Pluralism Media Literacy

they are reshaping journalism in the digital age