1799 - 1815Napoleonic Era
August 15th 1769Birth of Napoleon
Early Life of Napoleon BonaparteBorn on August 15th, 1769 in Corsica at Ajeccio. Parents - Count Charles Bonaparte and Countess Leticia Romalina. Studied at Brienne (Austria) and then Military Academy of Paris. Dur childhood, self confidence, hard work, and ambition. He served in the French Army at age 17 as artillery officer. He rose from post to post. He supressed two rebellions against Fr Govt during the Fr Rev
1796Directory govt appointed Napoleon COMMANDER of French army in Italy. His campaign was success, Defeated Sardinians and Austrians. Treaty of Campo-formio in 1797.
Military Campaigns1796 - Campaign against Italy. Defeated Sardinians and Austrians. Treaty of Campo-Formio in 1797. Egyptian Campaign. Battle of Pyramids, he won. Battle of Nile he lost because by Admiral Nelson - Navy stronger
1799Nappy boi overthrows Directory govt. Coup d’etat. Three member govt came into existence
ConsulateNap - 1st Consul. Abbe Siyas - 2nd Consul. Ducos - 3rd Consul. Napoleon had absolute powers, France was Republic only in name. Napoleon declared himself emperor via plebiscite in 1804
1804Napoleon becomes Emperor
Reforms of Napoleon BonaparteAdmin led to effective reconstruction of france. After 10 years of change during Fr Rev, France was exp a period of chaos and confusion. Napoleon brought order through his admin reforms.
i) Administrative ii) Code Napoleon iii) Concordat iv) Education v) Public Works vi) Economic reforms vi) Legion of honor
Administrative reforms of Napoleon BonaparteCentralized govt from local govt. France divided into provinces / departments. Subdivided into smaller units - arrondisments and communes. Powers of all bodies were vested in prefects and sub prefects who answered only to Nappy. Efficient police and loyal army helped. Uniform governance.
Arrondisment and Communessubdivisions of provinces
Napoleon CodeLegal code. One of his most imp contributions. Still forms a large base for French law. Model for rest of Europe. Civil Code, followed by Code of Civil Procedure, Code of Criminal Procedure, Penal Code, and the Commercial Code. Civil equality, religious toleration, emancipation of land were connected with these. Called “Second Justinian”
Concordat (religious treaty)Improved relationship with Pope. Understanding with Pope Pius VII in 1802. Concordat. Catholicism = State religion of France.
EducationNational scheme of edu. 4 grades of schools, all managed by the State. Elementary, Secondary, Higher and Special schools. Special = Technical, Civil service or Military. Intro new Uni system. Established University of France in 1808. Christian Ethics, Loyalty to state = two subjects taught
Public Works-helped solve unemployment crisis. - various highways, two Trans-Alpine roads (Connected Paris to Rome and Turin) - bridges built, canals and water ways repaired. New streets. Old prison → Museum called Louvre. Renovated Paris.
Economic ReformsNational Bank in France - Bank of France (1805). Supervised financial setup. Stimulated trade and industry. Careful collection of taxes. Revenue boards. National loan was reduced. Stock exchange regulated, gambling and corruption rooted out.
Legion of HonourAn award to honour people who have rendered civil and military services to the State. Based on equality, w/o distinction of class and rel
Napoleon’s ConquestsBattle of Trafalgar. Battle of Austerslitz. Continental System. Russian Campaign. Battle of Leipzig. Battle of Waterloo.
Number of coalitions against Napoleon7
First coaliton against NapoleonPrussia, Austria, Russia, Spain et al. Shattered during his conquest of Italy.
First coaliton against Napoleon mnemonicPARS
Second Coalition against NapoleonRussia, Austria, Turkey, Naples, England. Russia switched sids, Austria defeated
Second Coalition against Napoleon mnemonicNARTE
Battle of Trafalgar1805. Against Eng, Austria, Russia, and Sweden who formed coalition. French were defeated as it was a naval battle.
Battle of Austerlitz1805. Defeated Austria and Russia. Treaty of Tilsit.
SEARSweden, Eng, Austria, Russia
Treaty of Tilsit1807 with Tsar of Russia
Continental System1806. Issued two decrees (1806 Berlin 1807 Milan) to cripple the England trade. Continental system, where British goods were excluded from whole of Europe. European countries faced loss as they were dependent on England. Became weak. Spain and Portugual were attacked for not foll cont sys. Spain - Civil War. Napoleon sent Joseph, his brother. England took the opportunity and under General Arthur Wellesley, defeated French army.
Russian Campaign1812. Tsar Alexander violated Continental system and imported British goods. Napoleon invaded Moscow. Led huge army hoping Russia would surrender. Burnt Moscow. But suffered from thirst, hunger, and the cold. Napoleon returned with the loss of 3 hundred thou soldiers
Battle of Leipzig1813. Fourth coalition formed. Austria, Prussia, Eng defeated Napoleon. Arrested and deported him to Island of Elba. Louis XVIII was crowned king of France.
Battle of WaterlooNapoleon fled Elba and went to France. Louis XVIII took refuge in Belgium. Ruled for 100 days. Allied nations came together. In 1815, at Waterloo, Belgium, Napoleon was defeated by Sir Arthur Wellesley (Wellington) who was the Brit General. Napoleon was exiled to St Helena.
May 5th, 1821Napoleon died of ulcer
Causes for Napoleon’s downfallGenius, but overambitious and prideful - Army consisted of soldiers from different nations who did not have any attachment to the empire. - Rise of nationalism against Napoleonic empire -Continental System caused huge losses to Eur countries -Russian expedition was a fail -Ill treatment of the Pope. He shifted seat of Papacy to Paris because Pope refused to accept continental system. -Continuous opp. by England. Strong fleet and commanders. -Friend and relatives of Napoleon betrayed him
The Ancient Cow Roared Like a Whale