1. Empathy - Altruism more similar to us, more empathetic selective altruism harder to empathize with a number than a specific person
  2. Negative State Relief to make us feel better unhappiness → more prosocial behavior
  3. Empathic Joy not because empathy but due to feelings of accomplishment eg. groups of students asked to give advice to a girl who dropped out. Those who were told they’d find out what the student decided were more likely to help
  4. Competitive Altruism
  5. Kin Selection Theory states that we help ourselves by helping people who share our genes. Evolutionary perspective

Factors increasing prosocial behaviour

We are more likely to help others who are similar to ourselves than others who are dissimilar. those who are not responsible for their current need for help.

exposure to other people, either “in the flesh” or symbolically, who behave in a helpful manner increases helping

prosocial video games


Reduce Helping

social exclusion darkness economic value on our time Bystander Effect crowding