14th - 17th CenturyModern Age, distinct urban culture in Europedate
Centers of art and learningFlorence, Venice, and Rome
PatronisedArtists and Writers by rich and aristocratic
PrintingImportant invention. Why? Information. Available to everyone. Helped compare Europe with the world of Romans and Greeks.
ReligionShould be chosen by person
Eurocentricmyth that Meditteranean Sea was center of the world that was dispelled
GeocentricBelief that Earth was in the center of the Universe. Replaced by heliocentric
RenaissanceCriticised church, discouraged superstitions and blind beliefs, College and Unis freed from pope, scientific thinking, inventions, knowledge spread
Geographical DiscoveriesNew sea routes and new continents. Link bw East and West
1453Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinopledate
Causes of geographical exploration1. Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople. 2. Trade, demand for commodities such spices, muslin, silk, pearls, precious stones, ivory. 3.Traveler Accounts 4.Geographical Knowledge, myths dispelled, books. 5. Spread of Christianity 6. Efforts of Prince Henry of Portugal (training school of navigation) 7. Printing press, maps, mariner compass,banks and joint stock companies. Patronage
A Merchant’s HandbookFrancesco Balducci
Secrets of the Faithful CrusaderMarino Sanudo
Important Explorations (6)Henry the Navigator, Bartholomew Diaz, Christopher Colombus, Vasco da Gama, Amerigo Vespucci, Ferdinand Magellanpeople
HenryPortuguese. Prince Henry - motivator behind great sailors, training school -School of Navigation, Italian sailors, mapmakers, geographers and ship builders. African Coast explored by Portugal. Known as Henry the Navigatorpeople
Bartholomew DiazPortuguese. Western coast of Africa sailed, reached southern tip in 1488; caught in storm had to return therefore named cape of stormspeople
Christopher ColombusItalian. Sailor from Genoa (Italy), believed Earth was round, crossing Atlantic Ocean = reach India; King Ferdinand of Spain and Queen Isabella; San Salvador (Bahamas) - 1492. Red Indians. South America, Cuba, and Haiti.people
Vasco da GamaPortuguese. sailor, sea route to India; Emmanuel II patronised him; Renamed Cape of Storms - Cape Of Good Hope. Reached Calicut, welcomed by King Zamorin 1498people
Amerigo VespucciItalian. Discovered mainland of America. Written accounts of New World. Told new continentpeople
Ferdinand MagellanPortuguese. Earth was round, believed could circumnavigate. 1519 - Charles I of Spain. 5 ships - Victoria, San Antonio, Trinidad, Santiago, Conception; Southern tip of South America, entered new ocean found it calm, named it Pacific Ocean. Reached Phillipines. Lost his life - 1521. Victoria circumnavigated under Juan Sebastian El Cano - First ship to do so, proved Earth was round. Took three years approx to reach Spain againpeople
Portuguese ExplorersHenry, Bartholomew, Vasco da Gama, Ferdinand Magellanpeople
Italian ExplorersChristopher Colombus, Amerigo Vespuccipeople
1498Vasco da Gama reaches Indiadate
Results of Geographical DiscoveriesEnlarged world, Earth = round, colonies and christianity, London Lisbon and Amsterdam = New trading centres, spread of Christianity, stable monarchies, ensured competition to have trade monopoly and therefore became ruthless, slave trade, ship building, renaissance and reformation
Renaissance root wordLatin. Renasaree = Rebirth / Revival
ItalySchool of Renaissance / Mother land of Renaissance
Why Italy = school of renaissance?After capture of Constantinople, scholars fled to Italy
Causes for Renaissance (6)Capture of Constantinople; Education; Encouragement to art and learning; Fall of Feudalism; Geographical Discoveries; Printing Press;
Features of Renaissance (3)Humanism, Classicism, Vernacular languages
Contributions of RenaissanceLiterature, Art and Architecture, Sculptures, Paintings, Science
Morning Stars of RenaissancePetrarch, Dante, Boccacciopeople
Father of Renaissance / Father of HumanismPetrarch (Petrarch the Patriarch)people
DanteDivine Comedypeople
PetrarchLaura, Africapeople
MachiavelliThe Princepeople
BoccaccioLife of Dantepeople
CervantesDon Quixotepeople
John MiltonParadise Lost, Paradise Regainedpeople
Sir Thomas MoreUtopiapeople
ErasmusPraise and Folly; 24,000 copies in 1 yearpeople
BruniTranslated Plato, Artistotle, Socratespeople
Art and Architecture during RenaissanceHumanistic, realistic. Free from Church; independent outlook; Gothic architecture - mix of Greek, Roman, Ionic, Doric. Corinthian; Large palaces, churches, monasteries, public buildings. Alberti, Monetti, Brumeleschi, Brumante, Michael Angelo
Gothic ArchitectureLarge arches, tall pillars, and domes
Famous architecture during RenaissanceSt Paul’s (London), St Peter’s (Rome), St Mark’s (Venice), Sistine Chapel (Vatican)
Palace Of Pope Julius III (London), Pitty Palace (Florence), Doyage Palace (Venice)
SculpturesLorenzo Ghilberti - carvings of doors of Baptistery; Donatello - Statues of St George and St Mark; Michelangelo - The David, The Moses, The Bounded Slave; Durer - Knight and Death
PaintingCanvas, Glass, and wood. Oil painting. Titian popular for bright colors. Free from Churches; humanistic, secular; Florentine School of Art - Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Raphael
Leonardo da VinciThe Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, The Virgin and Childpeople
MichelangeloCreation of Adam, Last Judgement, Day and Nightpeople
TitianAssumption of the Virginpeople
RaphaelSistine Madonnapeople
SciencePhy, Chem, Math, Astronomy, Geo. Nufer, Leo, Roger Bacon, Copernicus, Kepler, Lipperhey, Galileo,
1500Jackot Nufer conducts Caeserean operationdate
1480Leonardo da Vinci invented parachutedate
Jackot NuferCaesarean operationpeople
Leonardo da VinciParachute, drawing of flying machinepeople
Roger BaconGun powder and magnifying lenspeople
Nicolaus Copernicushelio-centric theorypeople
John Keplerelliptical orbits, improved Copernicus’ theorypeople
Hans Lipperheyinvented the telescopepeople
Galileoimproved telescope, studied solar system; thermometer, barometer, pendulumpeople
Isaac NewtonGravitypeople
William Harveyblood circulationpeople
John GuttenbergPrinting presspeople
Results of Renaissanceend of medieval, freed from Church, humanism (existence of man given importance), reduced importance of Latin - vernacular, push to art and architecture, renewed interest in Greek and Roman classics - viewed again with open mind, scientific inventions, discoveries and experiments; monarchy strengthened;
ReformationReligious movement, later medieval age, against church, pope, clergymen. began in Germany, then England, France, Switzerland, and Scotland. Rise of protestant churches. Led by Martin Luther. From medieval to modern
Causes of Reformation (5)Religious (simony, one person holding many posts, immoral secret lives, led luxurious lives, forgot principles of Jesus); influence of renaissance(writing, humanism, Wycliffe); Political (Nationalism, Pope interfered with internal affairs of the state - taxing, appointing officers to church, acting as judicial authority. Curb powers to only religious, spiritual); Economic (Roman Church = Rich. Taxes, fines, tithe, peter pence. Collected whenever they wanted in the name of repairing cathedrals); Sale of indulgences - immediate cause
John WycliffeMorning Star of Reformationpeople
Martin LutherLeader of Protestant movement; born in a peasant fam in Eiselben (Germany); Mansfield and Magdeburg, Erfurt Uni - Theology; Augustinian Friar and Monk. St Augustine; Professor of Theo at Uni Wittenberg; 1511 - visited Rome, shocked at lives of Pope and clergymen; Pope Leo X sold indulgences to repair Basilica of St Peter. Wrote book Manifesto of Reformation when John Tetzel came to Ger to sell (1517). 95 theses. Posted on Church door. Debate, challenged Pope. Pope asked Charles V to intervene, he asked to withdraw, Luther refused. Heretic and excommunicated. Under threat so stayed in isolation for 1 year; Translated Bible to German. Translated version = Popular among peasants, princes, and clergymen; they seized church property. Luther started own church - Lutheran National Church. Changes - Pope rejected, celibacy rejected (he married ex-nun), indulgences rejected, Bible = sole source of religion. Wars broke outpeople
1483Martin Luther was borndate
1511Martin Luther went to Romedate
1517John Tetzel came to Ger to sell indulgences; Martin wrote Manifesto of Reformation, 95 theses on Church doordate
1555Peace of Augsburg - peace treaty bw Catholics and Protestantsdate
Spread of LutheranismRecognised in Germany after Peace of Augsburg; Sweden, Denmark, and Norway were against Roman Catholicism, promoted protestantism. Roman Catholic churches property confiscated. Inspired Calvinism and Anglicanism
Counter ReformationRapid spread of prostestantism scared the catholics, to prevent further damage they asked for reformation from within. Pope followed steps to stop spread of Protestantism. Introduced four fold method - Punishing, Reforming, Converting, and Rendering social service. (Inquisition, Council of Trent, -, Society of Jesus resp.)
InquisitionRomantic Catholic court to inquire cases of heresy and punish guilty. Punish = excommunicated, given to civil arm which involved torture and execution by burning. Strict code of conduct for all Church officials. First established in Spain
Council of TrentTook steps to remove abuses that crept into church. Sale of indulgences = strict no no; strict code for Bishop and other officials. Service book of Church was revised. Index of dangerous and heretical books were prepared and catholics were forbidden to read them.
Society of JesusIgnatius Loyola founded in 1534. Inspired selfless, educated, and disciplined peeps called Jesuits to serve God. Wrote The Spiritual Exercises. Schools and colleges opened Europe, India, China and Brazil. Persuaded people to return to Roman Catholicism. Spread Christianity
1534Society of Jesus founded by Ignatius Loyoladate
Results (8)Freed from blind faith and intellectual freedom; cleared doubts about Christian doctrines and teachings of Jesus and Bible recieved importance; divided into two main sects, sub-sects formed with time; weakened power of pope, strengthened monarchs and nationalism; spread Catholicism all over world through missionaries; reformation encouraged literature and vernacular languages. Bible was translated; Civil war bw catholic and protestant countries, bloodshed and death, position of pope declined; confiscated wealth of Church used for economic development. Status of financiers, bankers and lenders increased