A constitution is a written or non-written body of doctrines and policies that gives rules and principles of a political system. It tells us how the government is organized, what powers it has, and what rights and duties the citizens have.

The Indian Constitution is the longest written constitution in the world

The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic, assures its citizens justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity.


was drafted by the Constituent Assembly was adopted  - 26 November 1949 came into effect - 26 January 1950 took almost three years to draft the constitution holding eleven sessions over a 165-day period

replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document

BR Ambedkar, father of Indian constitution and its chief architect

Fundamental Rights

Part III six fundamental rights recognized in the Constitution of India


  • before law
  • from discrimination
  • equal opportunity
  • abolition of untouchability
  • abolition of titles


speech, expression, assembly, association,

Freedom of Religion

Against Exploitation

Cultural and Educational Rights

Right to Constitutional Remedies


Fundamental Duties

NOT legally enforceable Part IV A

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions.
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideals that inspired the national struggle for freedom.
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
  • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
  • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the
  • people of India transcending religious, linguistic, and regional diversities.
  • To renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
  • To protect and improve the natural environment, including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures.
  • To develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.

mnemonic: A - Abide B - Bapu, Bhagat Singh (freedom struggle) C - caSUI - Sovereignty, Unity, Integrity D - Defend E - Equality F - Forts (Heritage) G - Green H - humanism, homi bhaba I - ISIS J - Jadeja K - Knowledge

Directive Principles of State Policy

NOT legally enforceable represent the moral and ethical obligations of the state Part IV

  1. Welfare of People
  2. Social Justice
  3. Economic Justice
  4. Protection of Children and Weaker Sections
  5. Health and Education
  6. Environment
  7. Agriculture
  8. Uniform Civil Code
  9. International Peace and Security
  10. Separation of Judiciary from Executive

mnemonic: I, U Peshwas

Constitutional Remedies

legal provisions within a constitution that allow individuals to seek redress or relief from the violation of their fundamental rights. Article 32


writs are formal orders or commands from a court to a lower court,


Quo Warranti








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