5 May 1789 – 9 November 1799

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity


Louis XIVGrand Monarch
Louis XVIRuler during French Revolution
Marie AntoinetteAustrian Princess; Madame Deficit
MontesquieuWrote ‘Spirit of Laws’. Appreciated Parliamentary of England, advocated Theory of seperation of powers. (accd to this, Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary should independent of each other) only then liberty will be safeguarded. Law should be absolute, people subordinate, equal to all
VoltaireSatirist. “Letters on the English”. He denounced the Church. Supported benevolent despotism. Not in favour of democracy. “Rather be ruled by a lion than hundred rats”
Jean Jacques RousseauFather of French Revolution. “Social Contract” He was responsible for three great principles of Fr Rev - Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. He said govt = social contract bw people and ruler. Said that we should overthrow the ruler if he’s injust / fails in his duties. Also wrote ‘Confession’
Social ContractBible of French Revolution. Written by Jean Jacques Rousseau.
DiderotEditor of ‘Encyclopaedia’. Condemned higher classes
French SocietyFirst, King and royal fam. Estate I - Clergy. Estate II - Nobles Estate III - Commoners. First two = privileged, third = not. First two did not have to pay taxes. Third had to. Third = commoners, farmers, teachers, philosophers, doctors. 2% of population = priv
Taxes paid by Frenchtithe (religious), gable (salt tax), taille (propery tax)
Finance MinistersTurgot, Colonne, Neckar
Causes of French Revolution1) Economic 2) Social 3) Political 4) Intellectual 5) Inspired by American Independence 6) Immediate Cause - Bankruptcy
Political Causes of French RevolutionBourbon Dynasty, Monarchy. Louis XIV. divine right theory of kings. Grand Monarch of Eu. Neglected interest of people, ruled accd to his whims. Louis XV - inefficient. Many wars were fought (7 years war, war of Austrian Succession), great fin burden. “After me, the deluge” Worldly pleasures. Louis XVI - Ruler during Fr Rev. Not bad but weak, ineff ruler. Nobles and Clergy used him. His queen, Marie used him as a puppet. Lavishly spent money. interfered in admin. Madame Deficit. Corrupt officials. Women, Wine, Wealth. No uniform legal system. Anarchy, misrule
Social Causes of French RevolutionFrench Society. Only common people were taxed. Discrimination. Could not get higher positions. Wealth conc to 2% of the population
Economic Causes of French RevolutionLost money because of war. Burden of tax on commoners because rich were exempted. Church had lots of property. Tithe, gable, taille (rel, salt, property). Had to pay even during famines. Thousands died due to starvation.
Intellectual Causes of French RevolutionPhilosophers, their writing. (Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean Jacque Rousseau, Diderot.)
Influence of American Independence (Causes of French Revolution)Soldiers who fought in American war of ind (Lafayette), inspired by slogans, liberty, struggle, sacrificing attitude, political ideas, democracy.
Immediate Cause of French Revolution (Bankruptcy)Costly wars. Great famine. Burden of tax fell on people. Rich no taxes. Lived lavishly. Finance ministers Turgot, Colonne, Neckar suggested rich should pay taxes, fired. Louis XVI summoned Estates of General Council. for the first time in 175 years
Start of French Rev1)Estates of Gen Council summoned. Three estates sitting seperate chambers. Common peeps “bro let’s do one joint one” First two estates “LOL NO” Third estate went to Tennis Court. “Bro let’s stay till they make const” = Tennis Court Oath. Made National Assembly 2) King wants to dissolve Nat Assembly. People became angry. Attacked Bastille (central prison) and freed the prisoners. Prison = symbol of tyranny in Fr. Fall of Bastille. July 14th 1789
July 14th 1789Fall of Bastille. Still celebrated as National Day in France
Spread of French RevolutionTwo group of revolutionaries - Girondists (moderates) Jacobins (extremists). Church property nationalised. Clergy = fixed salary. Paris mob went to Versailles and captured King and fam. Kept them Palace of Tuileries (Paris). 1791 - Constituent assembly set up and drafted constitution. Declared rights of man. based on Lib, Eq, Frat. Right to property, speech, writing, religion, pol opinion. Constituent Assembly Legislative Assembly King tried to flee, Paris mob demanded he be suspended. Legislative Ass. National Convention (headed by Jacobins)
Reign of Terror1792 - 1794; September Massacre. Killing of Louis XVI. Coalition. Establishment of Committee of Public Safety to supress anti-revolutionaries. Broke coalition. Marie Antoinette and other royals were guillotined. Robespierre head of committee of pub saf suspected peeps of all classes and killed them. Continued till he was guillotined by French in July 1794. 17000 people killed
September MassacreSuspected loyalists killed by guillotine. September 1792.
22nd September 1792France abolished monarchy, became republic.
Jan 1793Louis XVI guillotined by National Convention
Coalition against FranceCoalition formed by Britain, Holland, Prussia, Spain, Austria bcz feared rev might spread
RobespierreHead of Committee of Public Safety. Suspected people and had them guillotined
Directory Govt formed1795. Five members. till Napoleon captured in 1799
Results of French Revolution1) Monarchy abolished, republican 2) Ended feudalism and hereditary aristocracy 3) Ended special treatment of clergy, nobles. Property confiscated. Social inequality ended. 4) Declared rights of man 5) Pop ideas of lib, eq, frat. 6) Feeling of Unity and Nationalism. Insp for unification of Italy and Ger. and also later freedom movements including India’s. 7) Heavy bloodshed 8) Directory govt failed, Napoleon came