William Schultz 1950s 54 item questionnaire

B = Behaviour

three dimensions - inclusion, control, affection Inclusion assesses the degree to which a person associates with others. (belonging, recognition, participation) Control measures the extent to which a person assumes responsibility, makes decisions or dominates people. (leadership, responsibility, influence, decision making) Affection reflects the degree to which a person becomes emotionally involved with others(sensitivity, openness, warmth, closeness, relating to others)

two aspects - wanted and expressed wanted - How much does an individual prefer others to take the initiative? How much does an individual want to be on the receiving end of those behaviours? expressed - How much does an individual prefer to initiate the behaviour?

assumes that these three areas are fundamental in understanding and predicting
interpersonal behaviour.

is useful in understanding individual personality dimensions, in marital counselling, family counselling, and sensitivity training, in analysis of group dynamics or in any other form of group counselling or psychotherapy. helps individuals understand their behaviour and the behaviour of others.


To assess a person’s characteristic behaviour towards others in the dimensions of Inclusion, Control, and Affection


To adminster the FIRO B test and interpret subject’s responses to determine interpersonal style


  • is seated in a well lit room with sufficient ventilation.
  • establish a good rapport with the subject
  • the FIRO-B questionnaire and answer sheet are placed front of the subject
  • instructions, clarify doubts if any
  • subject starts answering the questionnaire.
  • no time limit; usually takes about 15 minutes
  • answer sheet collected, scored and interpreted accd to norms


FIRO B questionnaire Answer sheet Scoring Key Norms / Profile Sheets Writing materials


This will give adequate feedback on your interpersonal style and how to improve Answer all questions. 54 statements, rate on a scale of 1-6 6 = fully agree; 1 = fully disagree might feel repetitive, but each question is different and must be answered independently be sincere, don’t write “ideal” answer


  • ensure subject has understood
  • repetitiveness of questionnaire is mentioned


highest possible score for a dimension = 9 0-3 Low 4-6 Medium 7-9 High


low e - subject is uncomfortable high e - subject is comfortable; will move towards people low w - subject is selective in association high w - subject has strong need to belong


low e - avoids decision-making high e - takes on leadership roles low w - does not want to be controlled high w - accepts being controlled


low e - cautious about intimate rel high e - can be emotionally involved low w - cautious and selective in forming intimate rel high w - wants others to initiate

interpretation for total scores in a single dimension 0-8 - Low 9-13 - Medium 14-18 - High

total Expressed and total Wanted Scores(range:0-27) 0-12 13-22 23-27

overall total 0-20 21-37 38-54

Analysis of Results

’e’ and ‘w’; use norms; highest for any dimension = 9 score accd to norms calculate total score, total expressed and wanted, and overall total interpret draw a table


Theoretical Expectation

instrument originated from the need to understandand predict how high-performance military teams would work together during World War II. The first public usage of the test was in the late 1950s by William Shutz. The basic
premise for his theory was “people need people”, and people interpersonal needs motivate their behaviors.

Individual Discussion


Discrepancy = diff bw wanted and expressed Greater the discrepancy, greater the need for intervention if >5, intervention needed

Group Discussion



Application Value

Leadership Development: Help leaders and executives unlock improvement in
performance by better meeting the needs of peers and subordinate.
Identify patterns of interpersonal behavior
Discover interpersonal behaviors for use as a guide for expected behavior
Foster questions about satisfaction with other’s and our behavior
Find alternate behavioral patterns which can increase efficiency
Build stronger, well-rounded, communication-forward teams
Develop Inter-personal relationships
To augment career development strategies