emerged in Latin America in the 1960s It began as a counterargument to the notions of modernization and development put forth by Western and Marxist thinkers

examines effect of Colonialism

Dependency Theory contends that resources flow from a periphery of poor and underdeveloped states to a core of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former

It argues that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but they have unique features and structures of their own

According to Andre Gunder Frank rather because the industrialized West purposefully underdeveloped them, leaving them in a dependent position (thus, “dependence theory”)

explains underdevelopment as the result of capitalist expansion accompanied by unequal exchanges, in which the Centre/Core/Metropolis takes advantage of the resources and labour of the Periphery.

Undevelopment vs underdevelopment

Undevelopment refers to a condition which resources are not being used while underdevelopment refers to a situation in which resources are being actively used but used in a way which benefits dominant states and not the poor states.