539 BCE Cyrus the Great, made and buried after the Persian conquest of Babylon

  • is usually concerned as one of the first human rights document in history but this has been disputed. It still is recognized as the same by UN.

  • reflects a long tradition in Mesopotamia where kings began their reigns with declarations of reforms and respect for the religious and political traditions of Babylon.

  • is propaganda by the Persian Empire

  • declares Cyrus as chosen by Marduk, paints him as a god-fearing and righteous king

  • denounces the previous king, Nabodinus. Discredits not only him but also his family line.

    The cylinder says:

    1. The conquest was peaceful and the people welcomed Cyrus The Great
    2. Nabonidus was an illegitimate ruler who ruined his country
    3. Cyrus is the liberator
    4. Temples were restored (though there is no evidence of repairing or rebuilding of temples)^[Winn Leith, Mary Joan (1998). “Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period”. In Coogan, Michael David (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195139372]

It is said that the king was religiously tolerant unlike Assyrians and Babylonians but - even before his rule, worship of the Assyrian gods were not forcibly imposed. It did imply acceptance of Assyrian God Assur’s power however.