Culture-agency of social change -total design for living -social heritage transmitted from one generation to another -sum total of materials and intellectual equipments by which we satisfy needs
Etymology of CultureColere - Latin word - cultivate / till the soilEtymology
Malinowskihandiwork of man; medium through which man achieves his endsDefinition
Edward B Tylercomplex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, law, customs, language, morals, and any other capabilities acq by man as a member of societyDefinition
Characteristics of CultureLearnt, social, shared, transmissive, relative, dynamic, gratifying, continuous, ideanational [DISC STRGL]Mnemonic
Culture is learntnot inborn, it is learnt, transmitted, learnt through socialization and group life; ex shaking hands, clothing, worshipping, saying thanks, etccharacteristics
Culture is socialsocial heritage of man, group life, social interaction. behaviour patterns. shared by members of group, does not belong to one personcharacteristics
Culture is sharedsocial property, belongs to group, customs, beliefs, ideas, folkways, mores, langs, etc belong to people of group. shared by members. product of group life, cannot be used by single person. Cannot exist without groupcharacteristics
Culture is transmissivesocial heritage, linked with past, transmitted from one gen to another; passed through language, customs, traditions. Lang = chief vehicle. sum of experiencescharacteristics
Culture is relativeCulture is not uniform, differ from society to society, variations in morals, mores, customs, diet, values, etc., relative to time and placecharacteristics
Culture is dynamicis not static, changes from time to time, factors like inventions and policies, problems, etc have an impact, evolves, factors that bring change in society bring change in culturecharacteristics
Culture is gratifyingprovides environment for satisfaction of human wants, guides activity of men, eg marriage provides framework to satisfy bio needs to have family;characteristics
Culture is continuousEver-growing phenomenon; glory of past and achievments of present. Eg - bullock carts, aeroplanescharacteristics
Culture is ideanationalNot material or non-material, not objects; psychological meanings to traits, sentiments to cultural elements. For eg - National Flag is not just a cloth but yada yadacharacteristics
Types of culture / Contents of cultureMaterial and Non-Material; High culture, folk culture, mass culture, popular culture, sub culture
Material CultureTangible, Man-made, concrete, visible. Eg buildings, trains, so on. Referred to as Civilization. Rapid change in short period of time
Non Material CultureAbstract, Intangible, Invisible. Traditions, values, beliefs, customs, habits, rituals, etc.
Language and idealogy, family, marriage, religion. Changes slowly and does not adjust itself to changes in material culture
High CultureCultural creations that have high status / highest level of human creativity. Eg classical composers, famous paintings.
Folk CultureCulture of ordinary people. Grassroots level. Self created and autonomous. reflects the lives and experiences of people. Eg folk songs and stories
Mass CultureEssentially product of mass media. For eg popular films, TV operators, recorded music
Popular CultureSimilar to mass culture. Anything that is popular i.e liked by a large number of ordinary peeps. eg pop music
Sub CultureCounter-culture. Group of people with something in common that distinguishes them from others
Cultural LagIntroduced by Ogburn. (in Social Change) Delineated two aspects of culture - material and non material. both dynamic. material - changes rapidy, while non material is slow. Difference = lag. Can’t adjust, non material lags behind. Two correlated parts of culture that change at uneven paces. Adjustment issues
SocializationLearning process where person becomes a member of society; mould individuals into ways of their society and culture. Begins at birth, continues throughout life. Born as biological organism with animal needs. Socialization helps mould and become social beings and learn social ways of acting and feeling. Makes society and culture possible. Acquire culture of the group
Socialization - Ogburn and Nimkoff”Socialization is the process by which the individual learns to conform to the norms of the group.”Definition
Stages of socialization1) Oral 2)Anal 3)Oedipal 4)Adolescence. HM Johnson
Oral Stagefrom birth to 1 year. Cries a lot. Oral dependency, learns to signal needs for care. Sub sytem - himself and mother. Can’t differentiate the roles of other from mother. Infant and mother’s role are merged. Freud called it primary identification
Anal Stage1 - 3 years. Anal crisis. Imposition of new demands. Asked to take care of himself to a certain degree. Toilet training. Internalises seperated roles, his and mother’s. Not only recieves but also gives love. Becomes capable to diff bw correct and incorrect performance by training from socializing agent (mother) , and rewards / punishments. Two systems - i) subsytem - child and mom. ii) family. Mediator bw both
Oedipal Stage4 - 13 (puberty). Takes himself part of family. Oedipus and Electra Complex. (jealousy towards parent of same sex and love towards other). Believed to be sexual. Playmates. Three role identifications - i) Sex role (with brother and father) ii) role of child in fam (identification with siblings) iii) with whole family.
Stage of AdolescencePhysiological and psychological changes. Want to free from parental control. Emotional crisis. Interest in opposite sex. Learns morals.
Agencies of SocializationINFORMAL - [Family, Peer Group] FORMAL - [School, Mass Media, State]
Socialization as childTwo - One from peeps with more authority, second from equal in authority
Family as agency of socializationInformal. First agency. Close rel, passiveness of child, emotional attachment, physical proximity. Parental influence, esp mother. Learns language, civic virtues, cooperation, love, tolerance. Parents = more authority. Child is passive. This makes easier. Cultural heritage is passed.
Peer group as an agency of socializationInformal. Agemates, playmates, classmates, friends. Equal authority. Acq appropriate roles, conduct, personal independence, goals. Cooperation. Explore tabooed topics, for eg sexual knowledge. Fashions, fads.
School as an agency of socializationFormal. Teachers help mould personality. Ideas and attitudes. Education. Friendship, cooperation, discipline. Intellectual, social, and emotional development. Authoritative
Mass media as an agency of socializationFormal. Print and media. Have an effect on personality. Eg books, magazines, shows, etc. Transmit culture. Educate masses and change value systems.
State as an agency of socializationAuthoritarian agency. Formal. Makes laws. Immense power. Social adjustment. Teaches to follow rules. Punishes
Role of culture in socializationi) base to socialization in making normal social being ii)Acts as guidance to control various activities. iii) teaches cultural qualities like morality, ideals, values. iv) help decide career. v)help become an important contributor to society. vi)guidance to behaviour patterns vii)kindhearted and sympathetic viii) social welfare and positive attitude