Cold War

Used first by George Orwell in the essay “You and the Atomic Bomb” 1945

Specifically, this context by Bernard Baruch, US Statesman

Propaganda war not arm war B/w Western nations and Communist nations B/w two superpowers - USA and USSR Global phenomena because whole divided. Chose sides depending on their ideology Used propaganda, espionage, military alliances to weaken each other


WWII - USA, USSR, UK, France fought together against Germany and its allies. After war, suspicion loomed. Russia refuses to evacuate from Iran Sovietization of Eastern Europe - (Yalta and Balkan agreement) Soviet influence in Greece - Nazis left. British entered. Treaty bw Britain and Soviet Union regd who gets Greece. Communist vs Royalists. Western countries believed Soviet Union instigated it. Brit sought support of USA, Greek govt also did the same. Truman offered economic and military support. Soviet influence in Turkey - USSR exerted pressure on Turkey to give up territory; Turkey refused, seeked help from the USA. Truman Doctrine. Economic and Military support Problems rel to Germany - Stalin demanded 10,000 million dollars from Germany at Yalta conf. After the war, Soviet Union destroyed German industries and transferred German mech to Russ. German economy shattered. USA, UK offer economic aid Secrecy of Atom Bomb - US kept atom bomb secret though USSR was an ally. Stalin considered this betrayal. Felt concerned about own security. Communist activities in US - USSR encouraged espionage and communist activities.


Major Political Events

Poland, Bulgaria, Romania inspired communist movements

Truman Doctrine in 1947. Prez of Truman. Protection to people who are resisting armed subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures. He believed those will help totalitarian regimes and interfere with world peace. Check Communist expansion in Eastern Europe. 400 Million dollars

Marshall Plan. Secretary of State - George Marshall. Offered American aid to promote recovery and reconstruction of wartorn European countries but the main aim was to check Communism

Molotov Plan - Foreign Affairs Minister of Russia. Vyacheslav Molotov As response to Marshall Plan. Understood intention of USA and refused to accept it along with Eastern Europe satellite nations. Provided own economic support known as COMECON - Council of Mutual Economic Assistance

Berlin Blockade - German Problem 1949 Germany was under occupation of allies. Div into East and West Germany. East Germany under Russian control. Stalin blocked Berlin and cut all land and sea routes bw West and Berlin. Allowed access and exit through three air corridors. Blockade withdrawn after 11 months. First Berlin crisis. America started Anti-Communist Propaganda all over world.

China - Mao Tse Communist regime. Encouraged communism along with USSR in 1949. 1949 USSR tested nuclear bomb. Added tension bw USSR and USA. Eastern Eur countries allied with USSR. China signed a defense treaty.

Korea Civil War - South Korea - USA help. North Korea - China help. Ended with division of Korea. 1953 - Armistice bw Koreas. NATO, SEATO, CENTO under US leadership. USSR signed Warsaw Pact

Warsaw Pact - USSR with East European Countries. Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germ, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland against NATO

Missiles, Atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs intensified cold war Space race