Bipolar Disorder

Chronic, life-long characterized by periods or episodes of extreme mood disturbances (mania, hypomania, and depression)


Bipolar 1: This type involves at least one manic episode that may be severe enough to require hospitalization. People with Bipolar 1 may also experience major depressive episodes, but it’s not required for the diagnosis. Bipolar 2: This type is characterized by at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode. Hypomanic episodes are similar to manic episodes but less severe and without the need for hospitalization. The depressive episodes in Bipolar 2 tend to be more frequent and longer-lasting than in Bipolar 1 Cyclothymia: This is a milder form of bipolar disorder with chronic fluctuating moods involving numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and periods of depressive symptoms. These symptoms are less severe than those of full-blown manic or major depressive episodes. To be diagnosed with Cyclothymia, the symptoms must persist for at least two years in adults.


Manic Episode

  • Elevated Mood: Feeling extremely energetic, happy, or irritable.
  • Racing Thoughts: Your mind races, and ideas come quickly.
  • Increased Activity: You might take on lots of activities and feel like you don’t need much sleep.
  • Talkativeness: Speaking rapidly or feeling a pressure to keep talking.
  • Distractibility: Finding it hard to concentrate.
  • Impulsivity: Engaging in activities without considering consequences (e.g., overspending, risky behavior).

Depressive Episode

  • Depressed Mood: Feeling sad, empty, or hopeless.
  • Loss of Interest: Losing enjoyment in most activities.
  • Fatigue: Feeling tired and lacking energy.
  • Sleep Disturbances: Insomnia (difficulty sleeping) or sleeping too much.
  • Appetite Changes: Either loss of appetite or increased cravings.
  • Feelings of Worthlessness or Guilt: Negative thoughts about yourself.
  • Trouble Concentrating: Difficulty making decisions or remembering things.
  • Thoughts of Death or Suicide: Sometimes with suicide plans or attempts


Mood stabilizers like Lithium anti-convulsants anti-depressants but might trigger mania anti-psychotics